Province Summary


Columbia Cascade

The Columbia Cascade Ecological Province is defined as the Columbia River from Wanapum Dam to the limit of anadromous fish passage at Chief Joseph Dam and is situated in north central Washington. Tributary subbasins are, for the most part, high gradient streams that begin in the North Cascade Mountains and drain directly to the Columbia River. The province also includes a few smaller streams that drain smaller watershed adjacent to the Columbia as well as a number of gulches that arise from the channeled scablands to the east. The province is divided into 6 subbasins: the Entiat, Entiat, Lake Chelan, Methow, Okanogan, and Upper Middle Mainstem Columbia River.

Construction of Grand Coulee Dam in 1934 blocked over 1,000 miles of habitat in the Upper Columbia River Basin upstream of the Columbia Cascade Province. Another 52 miles of habitat was blocked, in 1961, by the completion of the Chief Joseph Dam. In addition, there are six hydroelectric projects downstream of this Province: Wanapum Dam and Priest Rapids Dam, and four federally owned projects, McNary Dam, John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam and Bonneville Dam.

To mitigate for the loss of anadromous salmonid production by the federally built projects, the federal government built and continues to operate the Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery in the Wenatchee subbasin and later the Entiat and Winthrop National Fish Hatcheries in the Entiat and Methow subbasins, respectively. No federal mitigation facility was constructed in the Okanogan subbasin.

With the construction of each of the privately owned Mid-Columbia hydroelectric projects, additional production/hatchery facilities were developed in the Columbia Cascade Province. The recent Habitat Conservation Plan (initiated by Chelan and Douglas Public Utility Districts (PUDs) for ESA Section 10 consultation) identified the mitigation obligation of the PUDs and provides the groundwork for future changes in facility production goals and operations. Details of these changes in hatchery production will be resolved over the next few years. In spite of past mitigation efforts, declining salmonid populations in the Columbia Cascade Province have resulted in listings of spring chinook (Oncorhyncus tshawytscha) (endangered March 1999), summer steelhead (O. mykiss) (endangered August 1997) and bull trout (Salvelius confluentus, June 1998) under the ESA. Upper Columbia late-run chinook and Lake Wenatchee sockeye (O. nerka) were also petitioned (March 1998) but were determined not warranted for listing. Recent years have shown improved salmonid runs to the Province, consistent with findings throughout the Columbia Basin.

Source: Entiat Subbasin Plan

Focal Species in Columbia Cascade Province 356, 357


Focal Species Columbia Upper Middle Entiat Lake Chelan Methow Okanogan Wenatchee
Bull Trout            
Chinook (Spring)            
Chinook (Summer)            
Westslope Cutthroat Trout            
Coho            
Kokanee            
Pacific Lamprey            
Rainbow Trout            
Sockeye            
Steelhead (Summer)            

Click on column header to view status and trends for focal species in the subbasin


Legend
Not a focal species
Not listed
Species of Concern
Threatened
Endangered
 

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Columbia Cascade Province


View Status and Trends for Columbia Cascade province

Hatchery Releases and Returns to the Columbia Cascade Province359, 360, 363, 398, 399, 400, 401

**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Salmon & Steelhead Harvest in Columbia Cascade Province 384

**Harvest data will be updated in 2016**

Columbia Cascade Province Salmon and Steelhead Harvest

Note:

- Tributary data incomplete

   


View harvest for all provinces
Year Species/Race Mainstem Sport Mainstem Treaty Tributary Sport Tributary Treaty
2008 Spring/Summer Chinook No Data 0 347 695
  Summer Chinook No Data 188 No Data 0
  Fall Chinook No Data 0 No Data 0
  Coho No Data 0 No Data 0
  Chum No Data 0 0 0
  Sockeye No Data 0 No Data 0
  Steelhead No Data 0 No Data 0
  Total 0 188 347 695
2007 Spring/Summer Chinook No Data 0 115 751
  Summer Chinook No Data 294 No Data 0
  Fall Chinook No Data 0 No Data 0
  Coho No Data 0 No Data 0
  Chum No Data 0 No Data 0
  Sockeye No Data 0 No Data 0
  Steelhead No Data 0 No Data 0
  Total 0 294 115 751
2006 Spring/Summer Chinook No Data 0 529 588
  Summer Chinook No Data 216 No Data 0
  Fall Chinook No Data 0 No Data 0
  Coho No Data 0 No Data 0
  Chum No Data 0 No Data 0
  Sockeye No Data 0 No Data 0
  Steelhead No Data 0 No Data 0
  Total 0 216 529 588
2005 Spring/Summer Chinook No Data 0 103 1,063
  Summer Chinook No Data 338 No Data 0
  Fall Chinook No Data 0 No Data 0
  Coho No Data 0 No Data 0
  Chum No Data 0 No Data 0
  Sockeye No Data 0 No Data 0
  Steelhead No Data 0 No Data 0
  Total 0 338 103 1,063
  Total (All Years) 0 1,036 1,094 3,097

Status and Recovery Standards for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia Cascade Province402


  Populations and Viability Number of Natural Spawners
ESU / DPS Major Population Group
(MPG)
No. of
Populations
No. Meeting
Viability
Standards
Minimum No.
Needed to
Meet Standards
Minimum if
MPG Viability
Standards Met
Minimum if all
Populations Meet
Standards
Upper Columbia Spring Chinook Wenatchee-Methow 4 0 3 4500 4500
Upper Columbia Steelhead Wenatchee-Methow 5 0 4 3,000 3,000

Limiting Factors in the Columbia Cascade Province

View limiting factors for Columbia Cascade province

Bull Trout Status in the Columbia Cascade Province 361


Recovery Unit No of cores Abundance Trend (Number) Threat (Number) Risk (Number)
Upper Columbia (1) 3 350-1,500 Stable (1) Declining (1) Moderate, imminent (2)
Widspread, low -severity (1)
At (1)
High (1)
Potential (1)