Province Summary


Okanogan Subbasin Summary

The Okanagan (Canadian spelling used here) subbasin has its origin in forested mountains of Canada at elevations of over 7,000 feet and drops down into gently sloping valley floors at elevations of less than 1,000 feet. This great diversity of habitat supports a wide range of fish and wildlife, with many listed as Endangered, Threatened or as Species of Concern or at Risk. Notably, the Okanogan subbasin shares an international border containing political boundaries. However, this subbasin plan is predicated upon the biological needs of the fish and wildlife species dependent upon the watershed; and this plan, while sensitive to the geopolitical and socio-economic differences between the United States and Canada, focuses on the Okanogan ecosystem as an uninterrupted continum.

Over 300,000 people live within the Okanogan. The Canadian economy is centered chiefly on the tourism, agriculture, and the service industry while the US economy revolves around forestry and agriculture (orchards and livestock).

Source: Okanogan Subbasin Plan

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Okanogan Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Spring Chinook Upper Columbia  Wenatchee-Methow  Okanogan  Subbasin Plan Objective :
300 hatchery-origin adults297
 
Unknown Endangered No Data
Summer/Fall Chinook Upper Columbia      Subbasin Plan Objective :
3,500 adults297
 
Adult Escapement
2011: 9,681 adults59
Redd Counts (natural)
2011: 3,123 redds (natural)235
Not Listed Status & Trends
Sockeye Upper Columbia      Subbasin Plan Objective :
58,730 adults past Wells Dam297
 
Adult Counts (Wells Dam)
2017: 42,299 adults65
Not Listed Status & Trends
Summer Steelhead Upper Columbia  Wenatchee-Methow  Okanogan  Recovery Plan Criteria :
500 natural adults295
 
NOSA Estimate
2017: 151 spawners 474
Redd Counts (mixed)
2015: 487 redds (mixed) 200
Juvenile Outmigrants
2017: 7,264 juvenile474
Threatened Status & Trends
Bull Trout None (Within the Upper Columbia River Recovery Unit    Unknown  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
None
 
Redd Counts
2011: 60 redds 201
Threatened Status & Trends
Rainbow Trout       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None
 
Unknown Not Listed No Data
    
View abundance data for Okanogan Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Okanogan Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Bonaparte View View View  
Cassimer Bar View View    
Colville Tribal Hatchery View   View View
Ellisforde Pond View   View  
Omak Hatchery View View View View
Osoyoos Lake Experimental Net Pens View   View  
Salmon Creek Diversion View   View  
Similkameen Rearing Pond View View View View
St. Mary's Mission Pond View   View  
Tonasket Pond View   View  
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Okanogan Subbasin359, 360
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Arlington Hatchery Rainbow Trout 350 8 / 30 / 2010
Bonaparte Summer Chinook 102,756 8 / 30 / 2010
Cassimer Bar Summer Steelhead Upper Columbia River Steelhead DPS 16,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Chelan State Fish Hatchery Brook Trout 45,645 8 / 30 / 2010
Brown Trout 14,770 8 / 30 / 2010
Rainbow Trout 169,137 8 / 30 / 2010
Tiger Trout 6,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Omak Hatchery Kokanee 158,354 8 / 30 / 2010
Rainbow Trout 335,512 8 / 30 / 2010
Westslope Cutthroat 41,599 8 / 30 / 2010
Similkameen Rearing Pond Summer Chinook 513,039 8 / 30 / 2010
Tokul Creek Hatchery Golden Trout 640 8 / 30 / 2010
Trout Lodge Commercial Rainbow Trout 1,376 8 / 30 / 2010
Wells Hatchery Rainbow Trout 184,135 8 / 30 / 2010
Summer Steelhead Upper Columbia River Steelhead DPS 146,633 980 (mixed) 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Okanogan Subbasin421, 402

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Summer Steelhead Okanogan 1,000 53 (1991-2002) 2 of 2 (U.S. only) Unknown 0.09-0.84 (1985-96) Low
Spring Chinook Okanogan 750 (U.S. only) ----- 0 of 1 ----- ----- Extirpated
Limiting Factors in the Okanogan Subbasin 402, 405

Bull Trout
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Introduction of brook trout threatens bull trout through competition and hybridization
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Lack of flow functions as a barrier in streams throughout the subbasin limiting immigration and emigration.
RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Lack of flow functions as a barrier in streams throughout the subbasin limiting immigration and emigration.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Summer Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.