Province Summary


Elochoman Subbasin Summary

Streams in the Elochoman/Skamokawa Watershed originate in the Willapa Hills in southwest Lewis County, northeast Cowlitz County, and Wahkiakum County and flow generally south to the Columbia. The watershed area is approximately 163 mi2. From west to east, the stream systems include Jim Crow Creek, Skamokawa Creek, Brooks Slough, the Elochoman River, and Birnie Creek. The highest elevation lies at the head of the Elochoman watershed at 2,673 feet and the lowest is near sea level on the Columbia. The surface geology is a combination of volcanic and sedimentary materials. Less than 20% of the soils are classified as highly erodible.

Forestry is the predominant land use in the Elochoma/Skamokawa Watershed. Considerable logging occurred in the past without regard for riparian and instream habitat, resulting in sedimentation of salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Nearly 0% of the forest cover is in late-seral stages, however, as the forest matures, watershed conditions are recovering. Agriculture and residential land use is located along lower alluvial stream segments of the Elochoman River and Skamokawa Creek. Skamokawa and Cathlamet are the two largest population centers. The watershed is primarily in private ownership. The bulk of the private land is industrial forestland and road densities are high. The extent of the road network has important implications for watershed processes such as flow generation, sediment production, and contaminant transport.

A broad agricultural valley extends up the mainstem Skamokawa, West Fork Skamokawa, and Wilson Creek. There are considerable agricultural impacts to fish habitat in these areas, which suffer from non-forested riparian zones and disconnected floodplains. Chum, fall Chinook, and coho utilize these lower valley reaches and are therefore heavily impacted by agricultural land-uses. The upper reaches of the mainstem and all major tributaries are impacted most heavily by forest harvest and the forest road network. Winter steelhead and coho occupy upper watershed reaches, and are therefore affected most by forest practices. A similar land-use pattern can be found in the Elochoman watershed, with the exception being that the agricultural valley is found primarily only along the mainstem. The species effects are also similar, with agricultural uses having the greatest impact on chum and fall Chinook and forest practices having the greatest effect on winter steelhead and coho.

Source: Lower Columbia Province Plan

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Elochoman Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia  Coast Fall  Elochoman / Skamokawa  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,500 natural adults 298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: Elochoman River - 313 spawners474
Mill, Abernathy, and Germany, Creeks - 92 spawners474
Juvenile Outmigrants
2016: 101,661 juveniles474
Threatened Status & Trends
Chum Columbia River  Coast  Elochoman / Skamokawa  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,300 natural adults 298
 
Unknown Threatened No Data
Coho Lower Columbia  Coast  Elochoman / Skamokawa  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
2,400 natural adults 298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: Elochoman River - 168 spawners474
2014: Mill, Abernathy, and Germany Creeks - 2,239 spawners474
Adult Returns (mixed)
2010: 1,809 adults (mixed) 279
Threatened No Data
Coastal Cutthroat       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None300
 
Unknown Not Listed No Data
Winter Steelhead Southwest Washington    Elochoman / Skamokawa  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
600 natural adults 298
 
Adult Escapement
2015: 1,910 adult escapement (natural) 67
Not Listed Status & Trends
    
View abundance data for Elochoman Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Elochoman Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Abernathy Hatchery View     View
Beaver Creek State Fish Hatchery View View   View
Cathlamet FFA View      
Elochoman Hatchery View View View View
FF Rearing Pond View   View  
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Elochoman Subbasin360
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Beaver Creek State Fish Hatchery Summer Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 25,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 130,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Elochoman Hatchery Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 166,655 5,425 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 1,969 (mixed) 8 / 30 / 2010
Summer Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 171 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 518 8 / 30 / 2010
Goldendale Trout Hatchery Rainbow Trout 25,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Elochoman Subbasin369

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Fall Chinook Elochoman River 950 <50 -- -- -- Very Low
Coho Elochoman River 2,440 <50 -- -- -- Very Low
Chum Elochoman River -- <200 -- -- -- Very Low
Limiting Factors in the Elochoman Subbasin 362

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray chum spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Adults Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation All Reaches in the lower mainstem below Duck Creek have been impacted by decreased habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Increased sediment is a problem in reaches below Duck Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Fry Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Fry Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles, adults Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Many reaches have been impacted by decreased habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Increased sediment is a problem in reaches below Duck Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Juveniles, adults Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Reaches below the West Fork Elochoman have been negatively affected by decreased habitat diversity and channel stability. Lack of LWD has precluded the formation of pools.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, summer parr Reaches below the West Fork Elochoman have been negatively affected by sedimentation caused primarily by road erosion.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Juveniles Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Adults Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adults Reaches between Beaver Creek and the West Fork Elochoman have been degraded by decreased habitat diversity and channel stability. Lack of LWD has precluded the formation of pools.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, adults Reaches between Beaver Creek and the West Fork Elochoman have been degraded by sedimentation caused primarily by road erosion..
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Fry Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Fry Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Mainstem and tributary reaches between Clear Creek and the North Fork Elochoman are negatively affected by decreased habitat diversity and channel stability. Lack of LWD has precluded the formation of pools.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, fry, summer parr Mainstem and tributary reaches between Clear Creek and the North Fork Elochoman are negatively affected sedimentation caused primarily by road erosion.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Summer parr Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.