Province Summary


Grays Subbasin Summary

The Grays River subbasin includes the Grays River and other tributaries to Grays Bay, including the basins of Deep Creek and Crooked Creek. The Grays River originates in southeast Pacific County, flows southwest through Wahkiakum County, and enters the Columbia River estuary at river mile (RM) 21 near Oneida, Washington. Tidal influence extends upriver for 6 miles. The entire basin encompasses 124 mi2. Principal tributaries include Hull Creek, and the East, West, North and South Forks.

Approximately 95% of the subbasin is forested. Commercial timber companies own 73% of the subbasin; 3% is in agriculture, 4% is rural residential development, and 19% is non-industrial forestland (CCD/WCD data). State ownership comprises the bulk of the remaining lands. The only population centers are the unincorporated towns of Grays River, Rosburg, and Chinook. Potential natural vegetation includes western hemlock, western red cedar, Sitka spruce, and Douglas fir. Much of the basin has been impacted by timber harvest and is primarily composed of young forest stands. The State of Washington owns, and the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) manages the beds of all navigable waters within the subbasin. Any proposed use of those lands must be approved in advance by the DNR. Approximately 500 acres of land in the lower Grays River have been acquired by the Columbia Land Trust for protection of natural resources.

Source: Lower Columbia Province Plan

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Grays Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia  Coast Fall  Grays / Chinook  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,000 natural adults 298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: Grays and Chinook Rivers - 156 spawners474
Juvenile Outmigrants
2017: 52,153 juveniles474
Threatened Status & Trends
Chum Columbia River  Coast  Grays / Chinook  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,600 natural adults 298
 
NOSA Estimate
2016: Grays and Chinook Rivers - 30,408 spawners474
Threatened Status & Trends
Coho Lower Columbia  Coast  Grays / Chinook  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
2400 natural adults 298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: Grays and Chinook Rivers - 86 spawners474
Threatened No Data
Coastal Cutthroat       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None300
 
Unknown Not Listed No Data
Winter Steelhead Southwest Washington    Grays / Chinook  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
800 natural adults 298
 
Adult Escapement
2015: 950 adult escapement (natural)69
Not Listed Status & Trends
    
View abundance data for Grays Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Grays Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Deep River Net Pens View View View  
Grays River State Fish Hatchery View View View View
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Grays Subbasin360
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Deep River Net Pens Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 706,150 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 279,811 8 / 30 / 2010
Spring Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 700,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Grays River State Fish Hatchery Chum Columbia River Chum ESU 102,914 8 / 30 / 2010
Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 158,000 1,310 8 / 30 / 2010
Spring Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 4 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 45,950 72 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Grays Subbasin369

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Fall Chinook Grays River 530 <50 -- -- -- Very Low
Coho Grays River 2,290 <50 -- -- -- Very Low
Chum Grays River -- 1,600 -- -- -- Medium
Limiting Factors in the Grays Subbasin 362

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray chum spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices Diking Adults Agricultural practices have reduced floodplain function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Agricultural practices have denuded riparian areas in the lower river.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adults Habitat diversity has decreased in the lower river because of artificially confined channels, loss of LWD, and denuded riparian areas.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Riparian Degradation Eggs Increased sediment is a factor in the lower river.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Eggs Increased water temperature is a factor in the lower river.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Fry High peak flows originate from upstream sources.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices Diking Juveniles, adults Agricultural practices have reduced floodplain function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Denuded riparian conditions lead to increased sediment and temperature, and lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Many reaches have been impacted by decreased habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Increased sediment is a problem in many reaches.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Denuded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles, adults Peak flows have been exacerbated by land use and roads.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices Diking Juveniles Agricultural practices have reduced floodplain function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Agricultural practices have denuded riparian areas in the lower river.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Habitat diversity has decreased in the lower river because of artificially confined channels, loss of LWD, and denuded riparian areas.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Riparian Degradation Eggs, summer parr Increased sediment is a problem in many reaches.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Eggs, summer parr Increased water temperature is a factor in the lower river.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles High peak flows originate from upstream sources.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices Diking Adults Agricultural practices have reduced floodplain function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Agricultural practices have denuded riparian areas in the lower river.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adults Habitat diversity has decreased in the lower river because of artificially confined channels, loss of LWD, and denuded riparian areas.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Riparian Degradation Eggs, adults Increased sediment is a problem in many reaches.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Eggs, adults Increased water temperature is a factor in the lower river.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Fry High peak flows originate from upstream sources.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adults Large numbers of stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Key habitat has been impacted by sedimentation and loss of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Decreased channel stability is caused by the poor condition of riparian forests.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sedimet: Upland Disturbance; Riparian Degradation All Key habitat has been impacted by sedimentation. Upper subbasin reaches suffer from increased sediment originating from timber harvest, roads, and naturally unstable soils.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Summer parr High road densities in the South Fork watershed exacerbate peak flows.