Province Summary


Columbia Estuary Subbasin Summary

Columbia River Estuary [is defined as the] river mouth, including nearshore waters and Columbia River plume, to rm 34. The historical (circa 1880) total surface area of the Columbia River estuary has been estimated from 160-186 square miles, with extensive sand beds and variable river flow. The current estuary surface area has been estimated as 101,750 acres, which is equivalent to 159 square miles. Major Coast Range tributaries include the Elochoman and Grays Rivers in Washington and the Lewis and Clark, Youngs and Clatskanie Rivers in Oregon. Numerous other minor tributaries drain small watersheds but do not have substantial influence on the Columbia River because of their small size.

Numerous areas of special biological significance provide critical natural habitats and help maintain the delicate balance of the ecosystem. Since 1870, more than half of the tidal swamp and marsh areas in the lower river have been lost as a result of diking, draining, filling, dredging, and flow regulation. Since 1948, tidal wetland habitats in the lower 46 miles of the river have decreased by as much as 70%.

Source: Lower Columbia Province Plan

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Columbia Estuary Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia  Coast Fall, Cascade Fall  Mill/Abernathy/Germany, Youngs Bay, Big Creek, Clatskinie, Scappoose, Salmon Creek and Lower Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
Natural Adults
Mills/Abernathy/Germany - 900 298, Youngs Bay - 505, Big Creek - 577, Clatskanie - 1,277, Salmon Creek - none 298, Lower Gorge - 1,200 299, 298, Scappoose 1,222299
 
NOSA Estimate
2016: Youngs Bay - 195 spawners474
Claskine River - 2 spawners474
Adult Escapement (mixed)
2016: 1,757 adults (mixed) 71
Redd Counts (mixed)
2016: Youns River - 35 redds (mixed) 71
Threatened Status & Trends
Spring Chinook Lower Columbia  Cascade Spring  Included in specific subbasins  Recovery Plan Criteria :
Included in specific subbasins
 
Included in specific subbasins Threatened No Data
Chum Columbia  Coast, Cascade  Mill/Abernathy/Germany, Youngs Bay, Big Creek, Clatskinie, Scappoose, Salmon Creek and Lower Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
Natural Adults
Mills/Abernathy/Germany - 1,300 298; Youngs Bay, Big Creek, Clatskanie, Salmon Creek - none 298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: Lower Gorge Tributaries - 4,538 spawners 474
Adult Counts (natural)
2013: 703 spawners (natural) 474
Threatened Status & Trends
Coho Lower Columbia  Coast, Cascade  Mill/Abernathy/Germany, Youngs Bay, Big Creek, Clatskinie, Scappoose , Salmon Creek and Lower Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
Natural Adults
Mills/Abernathy/Germany - 1,800 298; Youngs Bay - 7; Big Creek - 12; Clatskanie - 3,201, Salmon Creek - No objective 298, Lower Gorge - 2,862 299, 298, Scappoose 3,208 299
 
NOSA Estimate
2016: Big Creek - 198 spawners474
Clatskanie River - 464 spawners474
Youngs Bay - 16 spawners474
Scappoose Creek - 1,200 spawners474
Adult Counts (mixed)
2016: 45 spawners (mixed) 203
Juvenile Outmigrants
2017: 584 juveniles474
Threatened Status & Trends
Summer Steelhead Lower Columbia  Cascade Summer  Included in specific subbasins  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
Included in specific subbasins
 
Included in specific subbasins Threatened No Data
Winter Steelhead Southwest Washington (not listed), Lower Columbia  Coast Winter, Cascade Winter  Mill/Abernathy/Germany, Youngs Bay, Big Creek, Clatskinie, Scappoose, Salmon Creek and Lower Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
Natural Adults
Mill/Abernathy/Germany = 500 298; Youngs Bay - 4,733; Big Creek - 3,182; Clatskanie - 3,982, Salmon Creek - No objective 298, Lower Gorge - 881 298, 299, Scappoose - 5,169 299
 
NOSA Estimate
2017: Scappoose Creek - 35 spawners474
Clatskanie River - 293 spawners474
Big Creek - 9 spawners474
2013: Youngs Bay - 164 spawners474
Adult Counts (mixed)
2011: 270 spawners (mixed) 182
Threatened Status & Trends
White Sturgeon       Subbasin Plan Objective :
greater than 400,000 fish 36-72 inches509
 
Adundance (42-60 inches)
2016: 224,400 fish510
Not Listed Status & Trends
Green Sturgeon       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None300
 
Unknown Species of Concern No Data
    
View abundance data for Columbia Estuary Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Columbia Estuary Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Big Creek Hatchery View View View View
Blind Slough Net Pen View View View  
CEDC Hatchery View View   View
Gnat Creek View View View  
Gnat Creek Hatchery View     View
John Day View   View  
Klaskanine Fish Hatchery View View View View
Sea Resources View   View  
Steamboat Slough Net Pen View   View  
Tongue Point Net Pen View View View  
Youngs Bay Net Pen View View View  
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Columbia Estuary Subbasin358, 359, 360
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Big Creek Hatchery Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 540,170 5,819 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 5,666,218 4,934 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 61,290 390 8 / 30 / 2010
Blind Slough Net Pen Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 300,036 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 280,437 8 / 30 / 2010
Bonneville Hatchery Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 1,227,480 58,137 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 4,568,846 19,470 8 / 30 / 2010
Rainbow Trout 2,208 8 / 30 / 2010
CEDC Hatchery Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 470,135 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 714,118 8 / 30 / 2010
Gnat Creek Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 41,263 8 / 30 / 2010
Klaskanine Fish Hatchery Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 510,061 1,096 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 41,308 659 8 / 30 / 2010
Tongue Point Net Pen Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 103,060 8 / 30 / 2010
Youngs Bay Net Pen Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 477,830 8 / 30 / 2010
Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 1,014,141 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 1,159,820 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia Estuary Subbasin368, 369

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Fall Chinook Mill Creek 670 50 -- -- -- Very Low
  Youngs Bay 750 379 -- -- -- Low
  Big Creek 750 216 -- -- -- Very Low
  Clatskanie River 750 6 -- -- -- Very Low
  Scapoose Creek 750 356 -- -- -- Low
Coho Mill Creek -- <50 -- -- -- Very Low
  Youngs Bay 1,100 4 -- -- -- Very Low
  Big Creek 1,100 8 -- -- -- Very Low
  Clatskanie River 2,200 1,363 -- -- -- Low
  Scapoose Creek 2,200 1,942 -- -- -- Medium
Chum Mill Creek -- <100 -- -- -- Very Low
  Youngs Bay -- -- -- -- -- Very Low
  Big Creek -- -- -- -- -- Very Low
  Clatskanie River -- -- -- -- -- Very Low
  Scapoose Creek -- -- -- -- -- Very Low
Limiting Factors in the Columbia Estuary Subbasin 370, 362