Province Summary


Klickitat Subbasin Summary

The Klickitat subbasin is located along the east slope of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. It encompasses an area of 1350 square miles, and includes portions of Klickitat and Yakima counties. The Cascade Mountain crest that forms the western boundary of the subbasin is dominated by Mt. Adams, a 12,000-foot dormant volcano with an extensive glacier system that drains into the Klickitat River.

Approximately 75% of the watershed is forested; these areas are generally characterized by steep topography considered unsuitable for agriculture. Most of this forestland is managed for commercial timber production. The Yakama Nation is the primary timberland landowner; collectively, the State of Washington and numerous private parties own the remaining forested lands in the subbasin. These lands are also considered suitable for grazing, and most currently have active grazing allotments.

Most of the remaining 25% of the watershed is agricultural land, dedicated primarily to pasture, dry-land farming and livestock grazing. Agricultural use is concentrated in the Glenwood/Camas Prairie area in the western part of the watershed and on the southeastern plateau, where climatic conditions do not support commercial timber species outside of riparian areas. Approximately 8,600 acres within the subbasin are irrigated, primarily in the Glenwood/Camas Prairie area (Outlet Creek drainage), along the Little Klickitat River near Goldendale, and in the upper Swale Creek drainage.

Total human population within the subbasin is approximately 11,000. Urban development is limited to the city of Goldendale, which has the highest population (3,760), and the unincorporated towns of Klickitat, Lyle, and Glenwood. Rural residential use is found primarily along the main thoroughfares (SR 142 and US 97). In total, these areas constitute less than one half of one percent of the total watershed area.

(Klickitat Subbasin Plan, pp. 8-9.)

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Klickitat Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Fall Chinook       Subbasin Plan Objective :
Combined annual harvest = 14,000308
 
Adult Escapement (natural)
2015: 6,863 adults (Tule and Upriver Bright) 74
Not Listed Status & Trends
Spring Chinook       Subbasin Plan Objective :
return number = 5,000-10,000, harvest = 35-40% annually, less than 50% of fish returning would be available for escapement308
 
Adult Counts (natural)
2011: 419 spawners (natural)76
Not Listed Status & Trends
Coho       Subbasin Plan Objective :
combined average annual harvest (ocean, Columbia River, and Klickitat Basin) of 14,000308
 
Adult Counts (mixed)
2017: 258 adults (mixed) counted at Lyle falls 75
Not Listed Status & Trends
Steelhead Middle Columbia River  Cascade Eastern Slope Tributaries  Klickitat  Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,000 natural adults302
 
Adult Counts (mixed)
2017: 263 adults at Lyle Falls 75
Threatened Status & Trends
Bull Trout Lower Columbia River Basin  Klickitat River  West Fork Klickitat River  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
Maintain population (minimum need); determine recovery criteria309,310
 
Unknown, presumed very low 382, 371 Threatened No Data
    
View abundance data for Klickitat Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Klickitat Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Goldendale Trout Hatchery View View View View
Klickitat State Fish Hatchery View View View View
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Klickitat Subbasin359
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Goldendale Trout Hatchery Brook Trout 800 8 / 30 / 2010
Rainbow Trout 16,539 8 / 30 / 2010
Rainbow Trout 11,359 8 / 30 / 2010
Tiger Trout 2,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Klickitat State Fish Hatchery Coho 1,158,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook 4,376,100 8 / 30 / 2010
Spring Chinook 624,650 8 / 30 / 2010
Skamania Hatchery Summer Steelhead Middle Columbia River Steelhead DPS 95,055 3,263 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Middle Columbia River Steelhead DPS 243 8 / 30 / 2010
Trout Lodge Commercial Rainbow Trout 256 8 / 30 / 2010
Washougal State Salmon Hatchery Coho 2,503,299 5,877 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Klickitat Subbasin376

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Steelhead Klickitat River Summer and Winter 1,000 1,702 6 of 6 Unknown Unknown Moderate
Limiting Factors in the Klickitat Subbasin 376, 382

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Filling; Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization All Loss of riparian vegetation, modifications of streambanks, channel instability, decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River have altered thermal regimes and affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Side channels have been isolated in Diamond Fork, and the upper mainstem of the Klickitat River. There has been a loss of wetlands in upper Swale Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Fry Floodplain roads, both abandoned and active, have led to channelization and constriction problems.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults A 2,400 ft flume, 2 culverts, and dam in Snyder Creek create a depth/velocity barrier. Poor passage percentage and survival exists at Lyle Falls fish ladder. Access to Dead Canyon is limited due to an undersized road crossing and road bed construction.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Side channels have been isolated in Diamond Fork, and the upper mainstem of the Klickitat River. There has been a loss of wetlands in upper Swale Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
-- Artificial Propogation Juveniles Non-native Skamania stock steelhead may affect fish from the Klickitat population.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults A 2,400 ft flume, 2 culverts, and dam in Snyder Creek create a depth/velocity barrier. Poor passage percentage and survival exists at Lyle Falls fish ladder. Access to Dead Canyon is limited due to an undersized road crossing and road bed construction.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Side channels have been isolated in Diamond Fork, and the upper mainstem of the Klickitat River. There has been a loss of wetlands in upper Swale Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows