Province Summary


Little White Salmon Subbasin Summary

The headwaters of the Little White Salmon River originate just east of the Cascade crest in south central Washington. The basin encompasses approximately 136 square miles and enters the Columbia River at Drano Lake at RM 162. Anadromous fish use is limited in this basin, with only about 500 meters of available habitat in the lower river.

Nearly the entire basin is forested, with timber harvest being the primary land use. The northern 3/4 of the basin is within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest (GPNF). The southern portion is privately owned, with scattered rural residential development and small-scale agriculture. The southeastern half of the subbasin is within the grand fir/Douglas fir ecological zone; the northwest portion is within the Pacific silver fir zone except for the Big Lava Bed, composed of scattered lodgepole pine, subalpine fir, western white pine, and Douglas fir. Approximately 20% of the basin is in early-seral vegetation.

A long history of fire suppression has resulted in no large (>100 acre) fires since the 1930s. Timber harvest has replaced fire as the dominant disturbance agent affecting basin hydrology (USFS 1995).

The major population centers are Willard, Cook, and Mill A. The year 2000 population, estimated at 513 persons, is forecasted to increase to 753 by 2020 (Greenberg and Callahan 2002). Continued population growth will increase pressures for conversion of forest land uses to residential uses, with potential impacts to habitat conditions.

(Lower Columbia Subbasin Plan, pp. K-9, K10.)

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Little White Salmon Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia  Gorge Fall    Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,200 natural adults (entire Upper Gorge population, primarily the Wind River)298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: Little White Salmon River - 557 spawners474
Adult Counts
2015: National Fish Hatchery - 13,836 adults (Tule and Upriver Brights) 77
Drano Lake - 1,453 adults (Tule and Upriver Brights) 77
Threatened Status & Trends
Chum Columbia River  Gorge  Upper Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
900 natural adults (entire Upper Gorge population) 298
 
Unknown Threatened No Data
    
View abundance data for Little White Salmon Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Little White Salmon Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery View View View View
Willard National Fish Hatchery View View View View
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Little White Salmon Subbasin363
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 6,537,837 8 / 30 / 2010
Spring Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 590,763 8 / 30 / 2010
Skamania Hatchery Summer Steelhead Middle Columbia River Steelhead DPS 23,995 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Middle Columbia River Steelhead DPS 20,001 8 / 30 / 2010
Willard National Fish Hatchery Spring Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 424,569 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Little White Salmon Subbasin235

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Chinook Upper Gorge Fall (primarily Wind River) Unknown Unknown NULL Unknown Unknown Very Low
Chum Upper Gorge Chum (includes Wind River) Unknown Unknown NULL Unknown Unknown Very Low
Limiting Factors in the Little White Salmon Subbasin 383

Chum
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry Current large woody debris levels are low throughout the basin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Fry The greatest impairments relative to sediment are located in the lower two watersheds and in the Lava Creek drainage.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization; Forest Management Migration Impediments Adults Two dams (one at the Little White Salmon Hatchery and the other on Lost Creek (north) adjacent to a diversion intake) restrict passage. Fifteen culverts present barriers to fish passage.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Wood/Structure Removal Fry Current large woody debris levels are low throughout the basin especially in Lost Creek (north) and Goose Lake Creek.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Juveniles Little White Salmon headwaters, mid-Little White Salmon/Cabbage Creek, mid-Little White Salmon/Berry Creek and the two lowermost mainstem watersheds are considered moderately impaired relative to conditions that influence sediment supply. The greatest impairments relative to sediment are located in the lower two watersheds and in the Lava Creek drainage.
Water Quality Temperature; Turbidity -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Adults High temperatures in Drano Lake may affect passage. Exceedance of the temperature standard has occurred in Dry Creek, the mainstem above 201 Road, the mainstem above Lusk Creek, the mainstem at Berry Creek, and the mainstem above Moss Creek. Turbidity levels are high throughout the mainstem and Lusk Creek and are attributed to bank cutting on the mainstem and timber harvest in the upper basin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Flow diversion on Lost Creek directs flow into the Coyote Ditch reducing flow in Lower Lost Creek by one-third during low flow periods.