Province Summary


Wind Subbasin Summary

The Wind River subbasin covers about 143,504 acres (224 sq mi) in central Skamania County. The headwaters of the mainstem arise in the McClellan Meadows area in the southern Gifford Pinchot National Forest (GPNF). Elevation in the basin ranges from 80 to 3,900 feet. The northwest portion of the basin is steep and the northeast portion is relatively flat and consists of high elevation meadows. Shepherd Falls, actually a set of four 10-15 foot falls, is located at approximately RM 2 and historically blocked all anadromous fish except for steelhead, until it was laddered in the 1950s.

The subbasin is 93% forested. Non-forested lands include alpine meadows in the upper northeast basin and areas of development in lower elevation, privately-owned areas. Approximately 9.6% of the land is private, while almost all of the remainder lies within the GPNF. Forestry land uses dominate the subbasin. The percentage of the forest in late-successional forest stages has decreased from 83,500 acres to 31,800 acres since pre-settlement times. This change is attributed to timber harvest and forest fires (USFS 1996). The largest population centers are the towns of Carson and Stabler. Carson draws its water supply from Bear Creek, a Wind River tributary. The year 2000 population of the subbasin was estimated at 2,096 persons and is expected to increase to 3,077 by 2020 (Greenberg and Callahan 2002). The State of Washington owns, and the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) manages the beds of all navigable waters within the subbasin. Any proposed use of those lands must be approved in advance by the DNR.

(Lower Columbia Subbasin Plan, pp. J-10, J11.)

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Wind Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia   Gorge Fall  Upper Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,200 natural adults (includes Oregon)298
 
Adult Escapement
2015: 2,247 adults (Tule and Upriver Brights) 78
Threatened Status & Trends
Chum Columbia River  Gorge  Upper Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
900 natural adults (entire Upper Gorge population) 298
 
Unknown Threatened No Data
Coho Lower Columbia  Gorge  Upper Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,900 natural adults298
 
Unknown Threatened No Data
Summer Steelhead Lower Colunbia  Gorge Summer  Wind  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,000 natural adults298
 
NOSA Estimate
2017: 1,059 spawners474
Adult Escapement
2014: 272 adults 511
Juvenile Outmigrants
2017: 22,584 juveniles474
Threatened Status & Trends
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia  Gorge Winter  Upper Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
No Objectives298
 
Adult Counts
2014: 8 spawners (natural)79
Threatened Status & Trends
    
View abundance data for Wind Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Wind Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Carson National Fish Hatchery View View View View
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Wind Subbasin363
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Carson National Fish Hatchery Spring Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 1,216,198 8 / 30 / 2010
Goldendale Trout Hatchery Brook Trout 1,750 8 / 30 / 2010
Brown Trout 1,750 8 / 30 / 2010
Coastal Cutthroat 1,144 8 / 30 / 2010
Rainbow Trout 4,967 8 / 30 / 2010
Tiger Trout 3,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Skamania Hatchery Brown Trout 8,000 8 / 30 / 2010
Coastal Cutthroat 1,676 8 / 30 / 2010
Vancouver Hatchery Brown Trout 4,500 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Wind Subbasin235

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Steelhead Wind River Summer 500 1,040 NULL Unknown 4.50 High
  Upper Gorge Winter 260 170 NULL Unknown Unknown Low
Chinook Upper Gorge Fall Unknown <50 NULL Unknown Unknown Very Low
Coho Upper Gorge 1,120 <50 NULL Unknown Unknown Very Low
Chum Upper Gorge 1,100 <50 NULL Unknown Unknown Very Low
Limiting Factors in the Wind Subbasin 376, 383

Chum
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All The Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juvenile, adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juvenile, adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All The Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Fry, summer parr Bank stability concerns exist for Compass, Upper Trout, and Layout creeks as well as for upper, middle, and lower Wind basins. The middle Wind River (RM 12-19) experiences rapid channel migration and avulsions during high flow events. The mainstem Wind River between RM 12 and 19 contains rural residential and agricultural development that has resulted in cleared riparian forests.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, summer parr Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude. The Wind headwaters and subwatersheds for Ninemile, Compass/Crater, Upper Trout, Upper Panther, and Layout creeks rank the highest for increased peak flows. Dry and Martha creeks as well as portions of the Trout Creek Basin go subsurface in late summer. Irrigation occurs in Trout Creek.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Fry, summer parr Bank stability concerns exist for Compass, Upper Trout, and Layout creeks as well as for upper, middle, and lower Wind basins. The middle Wind River (RM 12-19) experiences rapid channel migration and avulsions during high flow events. The mainstem Wind River between RM 12 and 19 contains rural residential and agricultural development that has resulted in cleared riparian forests.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, summer parr Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude. The Wind headwaters and subwatersheds for Ninemile, Compass/Crater, Upper Trout, Upper Panther, and Layout creeks rank the highest for increased peak flows. Dry and Martha creeks as well as portions of the Trout Creek Basin go subsurface in late summer. Irrigation occurs in Trout Creek.