Province Summary


Columbia Gorge Subbasin Summary

Bonneville Reservoir includes the present wetted channel from the forebay of Bonneville Lock and Dam upstream through the tailrace of The Dalles Dam. It includes the embayments, backwaters, and mouths or lower reaches of tributaries and associated seasonally flooded and riparian lands. Bonneville Dam impounded the Columbia River at river mile 145 in 1938. The Dalles Dam was built in 1957 at river mile 191. Bonneville Reservoir is entirely within the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area.

The drainage area of the subbasin and its tributaries is about 3,300 square miles, approximately 1.4 percent of the entire Columbia River Basin upstream of Bonneville Dam. The volume of the reservoir is 537 kaf and average. Tributaries of the subbasin contribute approximately 3.9% of the discharge through the subbasin.

Landscape surrounding Bonneville Reservoir is characterized by steep forested hillsides underlain by basalt up to 1,524 m thick with sedimentary and recent alluvium deposits. Elevations range from about 53 m below mean sea level (the deepest river bed elevation in Bonneville Reservoir) to over 1,150 m on mountains bordering the river just west of Hood River, Oregon. The valley floor is naturally and artificially constrained to various extents throughout the subbasin depending on the slope at and above the shores. (Columbia Gorge Subbasin Plan, p. 6.)

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Columbia Gorge Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Chum Columbia River  Gorge  Upper Gorge  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
900 natural adults (entire population) 298
 
Adult Counts (Bonneville Dam)
2017: 21 adults 60
Threatened Status & Trends
Pacific Lamprey       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None304
 
Adult Counts (Bonneville Dam)
2017: 82,564 adults 60
Species of Concern Status & Trends
White Sturgeon       Subbasin Plan Objective :
Harvest of 5kg/ha, target exploitation rates equal 21% of fish 42-60" in sport fisheries and 25% of fish 45-60" in commercial fisheries, increase broodstock by 10% every three years304
 
Abundance (>24 inches)
2017: 82,880 fish (>21 inches ) The Dalles Reservoir484
2016: 29,290 fish (>21 inches) John Day Reservoir502
2015: 181,892 fish (>24 inches) Bonneville Reservoir503
Harvest
Sport Harvest
2017: 486 fish harvested
Bonneville Reservoir - 276 fish484
The Dalles - 84 fish484
John Day - 126 fish484
Tribal Commercial
2017: 891 fish harvested484
Bonneville Reservoir - 355 fish484
The Dalles - 326 fish484
John Day - 210 fish484
Tribal Subsistence Harvest
2017: 103 fish harvested484
Bonneville Reservoir - 63 fish484
The Dalles - 26 fish484
John Day - 14 fish484
Not Listed Status & Trends
    
View abundance data for Columbia Gorge Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Columbia Gorge Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Bow Fish Hatchery View     View
Cascade Salmon Hatchery View View View View
Herman Creek Fish Hatchery View     View
Herman Creek Hatchery View     View
Spring Creek NFH View View View View
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Columbia Gorge Subbasin363
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Goldendale Trout Hatchery Brook Trout 1,797 8 / 30 / 2010
Coastal Cutthroat 1,586 8 / 30 / 2010
Rainbow Trout 49,935 8 / 30 / 2010
Mossyrock Trout Hatchery Golden Trout 2,132 8 / 30 / 2010
Spring Creek NFH Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 11,253,284 8 / 30 / 2010
Trout Lodge Commercial Rainbow Trout 1,152 8 / 30 / 2010
Vancouver Hatchery Rainbow Trout 1,800 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia Gorge Subbasin378

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Chum Upper Gorge (primarily Wind River) Unknown <50 Unknown Unknown Unknown Very Low
Limiting Factors in the Columbia Gorge Subbasin 378

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults Chum have a low propensity to ascend the fishways at Bonneville Dam. Transportation corridors and/or hatchery weirs block chum access to tributary habitats.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Fry, adult spawners Mainstem spawning and rearing habitat has been lost due to inundation by Bonneville Dam.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adult spawners Historic chum spawning, incubation, and rearing areas in low gradient streams and rivers have been lost due to urban, industrial, and agricultural development.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Recruitment of large woody debris to lower reaches of tributaries and nearshore areas of the mainstem has been reduced.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, fry, adult spawners Sedimentation impacts spawning and rearing habitats used by chum in tributaries and nearshore areas of the mainstem.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Eggs, fry Operations provide for intermittent dewatering of spawning gravels used by chum and changes to seasonal and longer-term recruitment of spawning gravels.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Passage measures developed for salmon do not necessarily provide optimum benefits to lampreys.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Juveniles Contaminants may affect survival and growth of lamprey.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Frequent pool elevation fluctuations impact ability of juvenile lamprey to use nearshore substrates for long periods of time.
WHITE STURGEON
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adult spawners Mainstem spawning habitat has been lost due to inundation by Bonneville Dam.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults White sturgeon are unable to use fish ladders at Columbia River dams.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Sport and commercial harvest limit adult white sturgeon abundance.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Eggs, adults Contaminants may reduce adhesiveness of eggs. Contaminants also may affect survival, growth, and reproductive potential of white sturgeon adults.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Eggs Elevated water temperature affects white sturgeon eggs.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Adult spawners Altered flows create suboptimal spawning conditions for white sturgeon.