Province Summary


Umatilla Subbasin Summary

The mainstem Umatilla River is 89 miles long and the river and its tributaries drain an area of nearly 2,290 square miles. Elevations in the Umatilla subbasin range from about 5,800 feet near Pole Springs on Thimbleberry Mountain to 260 feet at the mouth of the Umatilla River. Willow Creek is 79 miles long and drains an area of about 880 square miles. This subbasin ranges from 5,583 feet in elevation at its headwaters near Bald Mountain in the Umatilla National Forest to 260 feet at its confluence with the Columbia River. The Six-Mile Canyon area is 472 square miles and ranges in elevation from 3,084 feet at the headwaters of Sand Hollow Creek to 260 feet at its confluence with the Columbia River. The mainstem of Juniper Canyon Creek is 19 miles long and it drains 72 square miles. The headwaters of this creek occur at 1,935 feet and it enters the Columbia River at an elevation of 344 feet. The total area of the Umatilla/Willow subbasin is 3714 square miles.

General types of land cover found in the Umatilla/Willow subbasin, in order of prevalence, include agricultural areas, shrub-steppe, grasslands, forested communities, urban areas, and riparian areas and other wetlands. Forested communities are associated with higher elevations and grassland and shrub-steppe are more common at lower elevations.

The majority of land in Umatilla and Morrow Counties is used for agricultural purposes, as defined by the proportion of the total area designated as cropland, pasture, and rangeland. Cropland, both dryland and irrigated, comprise about 39% of the Umatilla/Willow subbasin. Approximately 73% of the cropland in the subbasin is dryland and 27% is irrigated. Rangeland and range-forest transition areas account for 42% of land cover, forest accounts for approximately 14%, and urban and developed areas account for approximately 1%. According to the US Census Bureau»s estimate for 2000, 70,548 people live in Umatilla County, resulting in a density of 21.9 people per square mile. The majority of these people (51.2%) live in rural areas and towns of less than 2,000 people.

The majority of land in the Umatilla/Willow subbasin is privately owned. Approximately 11% of the drainage is managed by federal agencies, including the United States Forest Service (USFS), which manages over 70% of federally owned lands. Other landowners in the subbasin include the State of Oregon, counties, cities, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR).

Source: Umatilla Subbasin Plan

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Umatilla Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Fall Chinook Middle Columbia      Subbasin Plan Objective :
4,192 natural adults319
 
Adult Escapement (Threemile Falls Dam)
2017: 680 adults85
Not Listed Status & Trends
Spring Chinook Middle Columbia      Subbasin Plan Objective :
1,702 natural adults319
 
Adult Counts (hatchery)
2017: 3,841 adults (hatchery)85
Not Listed Status & Trends
Coho       Subbasin Plan Objective :
1,568 natural adults319
 
Adult Counts (Threemile Falls Dam)
2017: 3,045 adults (hatchery)85
Not Listed Status & Trends
Summer Steelhead Middle Columbia  Umatilla/Walla Walla Rivers  Umatilla  Subbasin Plan Objective :
3,610 natural adults319
Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,500 natural adults16
 
NOSA Estimate
2016: 3,599 spawners474
Redd Counts (mixed)
2017: 40 redds (mixed)224
Threatened Status & Trends
Bull Trout Umatilla River (Within Umatilla-Walla Walla Recovery Unit)    North Fork Umatilla, South Fork Umatilla, North Fork Meacham Creek   Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
500-5,000 adults distributed among three local populations321
 
Redd Counts
2010: 13 redds141
Threatened Status & Trends
    
View abundance data for Umatilla Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Umatilla Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Bonifer Springs Ponds View   View View
Imeques Pond View View View View
Minthorn Ponds View View View View
Pendelton View View View View
Thornhollow View View View View
Three Mile Holding View   View  
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Umatilla Subbasin358, 363
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Imeques Pond Spring Chinook 726,653 8 / 30 / 2010
Minthorn Ponds Summer Steelhead Middle Columbia River Steelhead DPS 57,266 8 / 30 / 2010
Pendelton Coho 1,563,504 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook 227,950 8 / 30 / 2010
Summer Steelhead Middle Columbia River Steelhead DPS 54,692 8 / 30 / 2010
Thornhollow Fall Chinook 239,024 8 / 30 / 2010
Umatilla Hatchery Fall Chinook 807,305 8 / 30 / 2010
Summer Steelhead Middle Columbia River Steelhead DPS 84,131 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Umatilla Subbasin376

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Steelhead Umatilla River 1,500 1,472 8 of 13 0.99-1.04 1.5 Moderate
Limiting Factors in the Umatilla Subbasin 376, 394, 395

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of channel complexity and large woody debris limit bull trout in the North Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Pollutants impact bull trout in Meacham Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Temperature is a key limiting factor for bull trout in the North Fork watershed.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Low flows from June to September in Meacham Creek above Butcher Creek and in Thomas and Spring Creeks in the South Fork Umatilla watershed may have been influenced by land management activities. Low flows prevent migratory bull trout on their spawning migration from entering Meacham Creek.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Three Mile Falls Dam impedes access for coho when flows are low. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels limit productivity of coho.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles High temperatures limit productivity of coho.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Three Mile Falls Dam impedes access for coho when flows are low. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels limit productivity of fall Chinook salmon.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles High temperatures limit productivity of fall Chinook salmon. Releases from McKay reservoir may create a thermal barrier for fall Chinook salmon at river mile 50.5 (cool water below, warm water above).
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids. Lack of channel complexity and large woody debris limit spring Chinook in the South Fork watershed.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles High temperature below river mile 85 is the most important factor limiting spring Chinook salmon
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Out-of-basin stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults McKay Dam blocks access to over 30 miles of summer steelhead spawning and rearing habitat. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels in the lower Umatilla River have decreased rearing habitat for summer steelhead.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles High temperatures in the lower Umatilla River have decreased rearing habitat for summer steelhead.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.