Province Summary


Pend Oreille Subbasin Summary

The Pend Oreille Subbasin is located in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington and represents the northeastern-most corner of the Intermountain Province (IMP). It is bordered by the Upper Columbia Subbasin to the west, the Coeur d»Alene and Spokane subbasins to the south, Montana to the east, and Canada to the north. The Pend Oreille River is the largest river in the Subbasin and flows west out of Lake Pend Oreille and north across the Idaho Panhandle and the northeastern corner of Washington before draining into the Columbia River in British Columbia.

There are five dams on the Pend Oreille River including two in Canada, the Waneta and Seven Mile, plus Boundary, Box Canyon, and Albeni Falls in the United States. The dams have impacted both aquatic and terrestrial resources. None of the dams have fish passage facilities. Dams in the Pend Oreille tributaries further fragment the connectivity of native salmonid population, including Cedar Creek, Sullivan Lake, Mill Pond, Calispell Pumps, and West Branch LeClerc Creek Log Crib dams. Fish passage is blocked upstream of Lake Pend Oreille in the Clark Fork River at the Cabinet Gorge, Noxon Rapids, and Thompson Falls dams. These Clark Fork River dams are conducting experimental fish passage studies and are evaluating structure designs to pass bull trout and cutthroat trout, but the current numbers of fish passed are limited. The operational impacts of the dams have also impacted terrestrial resources by reducing the area of wetland habitats and associated primary productivity, reducing wildlife habitat and wildlife forage, and reducing nutrient input of extirpated salmon and other anadromous species to the ecosystem.

Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River near Kalispell, Montana regulates discharge into the Lower Clark Fork and Pend Oreille rivers. This dam provides nearly three million acre ft of flood control storage.

Over half (55 percent) of the Upper Pend Oreille Subbasin is privately owned. The remaining land is managed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) (25 percent), the state (7 percent), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) (1.6 percent). Major land uses in the Subbasin include agricultural and timber production and recreational development. Only 12 percent of the drainage is open water. Much of the land within the Lower Pend Oreille Subbasin lies within the Colville National Forest. State, Tribal, and private land holdings make up the majority of the remaining ownership within the Subbasin. Rangeland and agricultural land are located adjacent to the Pend Oreille River corridor. Agricultural uses include cultivated crops, grazing, and animal husbandry. The city of Newport is located on the Washington-Idaho border and is the largest urban area in the Subbasin. Other developed areas include Cusick, Metaline, Metaline Falls, Ione, and Usk. Past and current land use practices have not changed significantly; timber production continues to be the predominant land use.

Source: Intermountain Province Plan

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Pend Oreille Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Bull Trout Lake Pend Oreille (Within the Clark Fork Recovery Unit—Lower Clark Fork Subunit), Priest Lakes (Within the Clark Fork Recovery Unit— Priest Subunit), Pend Oreille River downstream from Albeni Falls including all tributaries to the Canadian border (Within the Northeast Washington Recovery Unit)       Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
Lake Pend Oreille
2,500 adults among at least 6 local populations with greater than 100 adults (USFWS 2003 Ch 3)

Priest Lakes
1,000 adults among at least 5 local populations with greater than 100 adults (USFWS 2003 Ch 3)

Pend Oreille River
1,575-2,625 adults (Indian Creek 50-100, Slate Creek 25-75, Mill Creek 50-150, Cedar Creek 150-250, Ruby Creek 100-200), Tacoma Creek 150-350, Calispell Creek 50-100, Sulliva Creek 600-850, and Le Clerc Creek 400-550) (USFWS 2003 Ch 23)327
 

Redd Counts
2015: 530 redds
Lightning Creek - 11 redd501
East Fork Lightning Creek - 17 redds501
Savage Creek - 5 redds 501
Char Creek - 0 redds501
Porcupine Creek - 0 redds501
Wellington Creek - 8 redds501
Rattle Creek - 5 redds501
Johnson Creek - 5 redds501
Morris Creek - 0 redds501
Strong Creek - 0 redds501
Trestle Creek - 117 redds501
Pack River - 14 redds501
Grouse Creek - 48 redds501
Granite Creek - 68 redds501
Sullivan Springs Creek - 0 redds501
North Gold Creek - 41 redds501
South Gold Creek - 69 redds501
West Gold Creek - 3 redds501
Middle Fork East River - 51 redds501
Uleda Creek - 11 redds501
Caribou Creek - 57 redds501
Threatened Status & Trends
Westslope Cutthroat       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None
 
No index of adult abundance in the Idaho portion of the subbasin
Over 30 populations surveyed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians since 2002 442
Species of Concern Snapshot
Kokanee       Subbasin Plan Objective :
Lake Pend Oreille annual harvest of 750,000 of which 375,000 are hatchery-produced fish.(IPOC 2004)

Adult population size of 3.75 million (IDFG 2001)
 

Abundance (age 1-4)
2015: 6,180,000 fish (age1-4) 480
Not Listed Status & Trends
Mountain Whitefish       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None
 
Few studies exist that describe abundance. Between 1999-2001, 1,963-26,613 fish (greater than 200 mm) existed in the Lower Clark Fork River below Cabinet Gorge Dam to the inlet of Foster side-channel a href="res_datasources.cfm?mnu=res&DSID=442#442">442 Not Listed No Data
    
View abundance data for Pend Oreille Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Pend Oreille Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Diamond Lake Net Pen View View    
Kalispel Hatchery View      
Sandpoint Fish Hatchery View View   View
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Pend Oreille Subbasin471, 472, 359, 399
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2015 Returns to Collection Facility in 2015 Data as of
Diamond Lake Net Pen Rainbow Trout 14,500 12 / 7 / 2015
Ford Hatchery Rainbow Trout 104,000 12 / 7 / 2015
Tiger Trout 1,500 12 / 7 / 2015
Nampa Hatchery Channel Catfish 8,365 8 / 30 / 2010
Sandpoint Fish Hatchery Rainbow Trout 45,865 8 / 30 / 2010
Spokane State Fish Hatchery Brown Trout 26,000 12 / 7 / 2015
Rainbow Trout 10,100 12 / 7 / 2015
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Pend Oreille Subbasin

    No recovery status for Pend Oreille subbasin.
Limiting Factors in the Pend Oreille Subbasin 408, 410, 411

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Hydro dams lack passage facilities. Loss of connectivity due to artificial barriers (e.g., impassable culverts, splashdams, etc) without passage facilities on the mainstem Pend Oreille River and its tributaries limits abundance.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Diking in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production. Lack of habitat diversity limits production in the Lower Pend Oreille. The availability of tributary spawning and rearing habitat limits salmonid production in Upper Priest Lake and Priest Lake. Tributary habitat throughout the subbasin is characterized by excess bedload filling in pools, widening of stream channels, loss of large woody debris recruitment, and fine sediment covering spawning gravels.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Livestock grazing, timber harvest, and conversion of forest lands to agriculture and residential areas have degraded riparian habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts, predation issues, and problems with hybridization with native species.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Mass Wasting; Forest Management; Urbanization Landslides; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Sediment input (mass wasting and point and non-point input) due to timber harvest practices and road construction/maintenance are problems in tributaries throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Elevated temperature, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved gases are problematic for fish in the Lower Pend Oreille.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Hydropower development and operations on the Pend Oreile River altered the hydrology of the river from a cold fast-moving river to warm and shallow reservoirs. Operation of Cabinet Gorge Dam compromises riverine habitat in the Lower Clark Fork River. Water diversion in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production.
KOKANEE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts, predation issues, and problems with hybridization with native species.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs Hydropower development and operations on the Pend Oreile River altered the hydrology of the river from a cold fast-moving river to warm and shallow reservoirs. Operation of Cabinet Gorge Dam compromises riverine habitat in the Lower Clark Fork River. Water diversion in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production.
LARGEMOUTH BASS
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Lack of over-wintering habitat is the primary limiting factor.
MOUNTAIN WHITEFISH
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Loss of connectivity due to artificial barriers (e.g., impassable culverts, splashdams, etc) without passage facilities on the mainstem Pend Oreille River and its tributaries limits abundance.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Diking in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production. Lack of habitat diversity limits production in the Lower Pend Oreille. The availability of tributary spawning and rearing habitat limits salmonid production in Upper Priest Lake and Priest Lake. Tributary habitat throughout the subbasin is characterized by excess bedload filling in pools, widening of stream channels, loss of large woody debris recruitment, and fine sediment covering spawning gravels.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Livestock grazing, timber harvest, and conversion of forest lands to agriculture and residential areas have degraded riparian habitat.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Mass Wasting; Forest Management; Urbanization Landslides; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Sediment input (mass wasting and point and non-point input) due to timber harvest practices and road construction/maintenance are problems in tributaries throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Elevated temperature, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved gases are problematic for fish in the Lower Pend Oreille.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Water diversion in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Adults Non-native rainbow trout releases lead to hybridization with native cutthroat trout.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Hydro dams lack passage facilities. Loss of connectivity due to artificial barriers (e.g., impassable culverts, splashdams, etc) without passage facilities on the mainstem Pend Oreille River and its tributaries limits abundance.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Diking in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production. Lack of habitat diversity limits production in the Lower Pend Oreille. The availability of tributary spawning and rearing habitat limits salmonid production in Upper Priest Lake and Priest Lake. Tributary habitat throughout the subbasin is characterized by excess bedload filling in pools, widening of stream channels, loss of large woody debris recruitment, and fine sediment covering spawning gravels.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Livestock grazing, timber harvest, and conversion of forest lands to agriculture and residential areas have degraded riparian habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts, predation issues, and problems with hybridization with native species.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Mass Wasting; Forest Management; Urbanization Landslides; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Sediment input (mass wasting and point and non-point input) due to timber harvest practices and road construction/maintenance are problems in tributaries throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Elevated temperature, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved gases are problematic for fish in the Lower Pend Oreille.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Hydropower development and operations on the Pend Oreile River altered the hydrology of the river from a cold fast-moving river to warm and shallow reservoirs. Operation of Cabinet Gorge Dam compromises riverine habitat in the Lower Clark Fork River. Water diversion in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production.