Province Summary


Spokane Subbasin Summary

The Subbasin lies in five Washington counties, Pend Oreille, Stevens, Lincoln, Spokane, and Whitman and three Idaho counties, Benewah, Kootenai, and Bonner counties. The majority of the Subbasin (approximately 78 percent) lies within the state of Washington while the eastern, and generally higher elevations, portions lie within the state of Idaho. The Spokane Indian Reservation lies entirely within the Spokane Subbasin and borders the north shore of the Spokane River from Little Falls Dam west of the confluence with the Columbia River.

The water source for the Spokane River comes from the outlet of Coeur d»Alene Lake (RM 111) and its tributaries. The Spokane River and its tributaries are defined as waters downstream of Post Falls Dam. The Subbasin encompasses an area of approximately 2,400 square miles.

Land use is heavily impacted from anthropogenic activities such as agriculture (fruit crops, cultivated crops, livestock rearing) and increasing development throughout the Spokane Subbasin. The Subbasin is broadly affected by both concentrated and diffused residential growth, which is intensifying stress on natural resources. A large part of the Subbasin is affected by urbanization from the City of Spokane and surrounding suburbs. Agricultural land uses are also widespread. Cattle graze extensively throughout the Subbasin, while dryland crops generally dominate the southern portion of the Subbasin. Livestock trample riparian areas and stream banks and contribute to fecal coliform, temperature, and dissolved oxygen water quality issues. Poor riparian condition reduces natural filtration processes and allows for increased sedimentation into streams negatively impacting channel morphology and aquatic habitat. Timber harvest is also an important land use in the Little Spokane River drainage and the headwaters of Hangman Creek.

Source: Intermountain Province Plan

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Spokane Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Chinook       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None
 
Extirpated Not Listed No Data
Pacific Lamprey       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None
 
Extirpated Not Listed No Data
Largemouth Bass       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None
 
Nine Mile Reservoir
Relative Abundance = 0.9% (2002) 466
CPUE = 3.0 (±3.1) fish/hour (2002) 466
Spokane Arm (Rest of Lake Roosevelt Included)
CPUE: (FWIN)
2016:
0.00 (0 fish) 483

Status & Trends
Kokanee       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None
 
Spokane Arm (Rest of Lake Roosevelt Included)
Harvest
2016: 10,440 fish (wild) 483
Spokane Arm (Rest of Lake Roosevelt Included)
CPUE (FWIN Survey)
2016:
0.01 (2 fish)483
Not Listed Status & Trends
Redband Trout       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None
 
Upper Spokane River
1,149 fish > 200 mm (2007) 468

Middle Spokane River
CPUE (eletrofishing) = 15.8 (+8.5) fish/1.85 hours, 0.1 (+0.2) (gill netting) (2007) 469

Abundance (>10 inches)
Lower Spokane River (Peaceful Valley to T.J. Meenach Bridge)
2013: 1,266 fish 276
Upper Spokane River (Washingtn-Idaho Stateline to Donkey Island)
2009: 1,368 fish277
Species of Concern Snapshot
Mountain Whitefish       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None
 
Middle Spokane River
CPUE (eletrofishing) = 9.8 (+6.4) fish/1.85 hours, 0.0 (gill netting) (2007)469

Free-flowing Spokane River
Relative Abundance = 11.7% (2002)470
CPUE = 30.9 (+ 12.0) fish/hour (2002)470

Nine Mile Reservoir
Relative Abundance = 0.9% (2002)470
CPUE = 2.7 (+1.6) fish/hour (electrofishing), 0.1 (+ 0.2) fish/hour (littoral gillnetting), and 0.2 (+ 0.2) fish/hour (pelagic gillnetting) (2002) 470

Spokane Arm (Rest of Lake Roosevelt Included)
CPUE: (FWIN)
2016:
< 0.01 (1 fish)483
Not Listed Status & Trends
    
View abundance data for Spokane Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Spokane Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Ford Hatchery View View   View
Ione Net Pens View      
Silver Lake Net Pen View      
Spokane State Fish Hatchery View View   View
Spokane Tribal Hatchery View View   View
Waikiki Springs Hatchery View      
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Spokane Subbasin471, 472, 359, 399
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2015 Returns to Collection Facility in 2015 Data as of
Ford Hatchery Rainbow Trout 49,000 12 / 7 / 2015
Spokane State Fish Hatchery Brown Trout 230,000 12 / 7 / 2015
Rainbow Trout 412,000 12 / 7 / 2015
Tiger Trout 40,000 12 / 7 / 2015
Spokane Tribal Hatchery Kokanee 1,339,019 12 / 7 / 2015
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Spokane Subbasin

    No recovery status for Spokane subbasin.
Limiting Factors in the Spokane Subbasin 408

KOKANEE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults The development of hydropower facilities without fish passage facilities limits genetic exchange, distribution, and habitat connectivity for fish species.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Embedded substrate and reduced habitat complexity, due to anthropogenic activities, limits native salmonid populations.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation All Fine sediment is the most common problem throughout the watershed.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Heavy Metal; Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Excessive nutrients exist in the Spokane River below Spokane Falls providing conditions for aquatic vegetation to thrive in low velocity habitats. Accumulation of decaying aquatic vegetation creates biological oxygen demands exacerbating already low oxygen concentrations. dissolved oxygen levels fall below 4 mg/L in the summer.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All In the Spokane River above Spokane Falls, increased water temperature and low dissolved oxygen concentrations are on the 303(d) list. High levels of total dissolved gas is a major problem below Long Lake Dam. Due to the continual series of reservoirs, dissolved gas cannot reach equilibrium. Approximately half of the Little Spokane drainage has impaired water quality throughout the year. Water quality in Hangman Creek is generally poor and state standards for fecal coliform, temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen are often not met. In Upper Hangman Creek, low dissolved oxygen, high levels of total suspened solids, and high temperatures impair stream conditions and salmonid distribution. During the spring, total dissolved gas saturation often exceeds the standard in the Little Falls Pool, whereas dissolved oxygen levels fall below 4 mg/L in the summer.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timimg -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Adults Land uses, water diversions, and dams have altered the spring freshet such that the current annual peak flow event occurs rapidly rather than the natural condition of gradual run-off, which consequently creates low, late summer base flows that limit habitat area and complexity.
LARGEMOUTH BASS
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Annual drawdowns at Lake Spokane limit the stability of warmwater species by increasing the proportional stock density of predatory fish and reducing cover and shelter for juveniles that leads to increased stress for juvenile fish.
MOUNTAIN WHITEFISH
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults The development of hydropower facilities without fish passage facilities limits genetic exchange, distribution, and habitat connectivity for fish species.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Embedded substrate and reduced habitat complexity, due to anthropogenic activities, limits native salmonid populations.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian zones have been severely impacted by agriculture, grazing, forest management, road construction and other activities.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation All Fine sediment is the most common problem throughout the watershed.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Heavy Metal; Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Excessive nutrients exist in the Spokane River below Spokane Falls providing conditions for aquatic vegetation to thrive in low velocity habitats. Accumulation of decaying aquatic vegetation creates biological oxygen demands exacerbating already low oxygen concentrations. dissolved oxygen levels fall below 4 mg/L in the summer.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All In the Spokane River above Spokane Falls, increased water temperature and low dissolved oxygen concentrations are on the 303(d) list. High levels of total dissolved gas is a major problem below Long Lake Dam. Due to the continual series of reservoirs, dissolved gas cannot reach equilibrium. Approximately half of the Little Spokane drainage has impaired water quality throughout the year. Water quality in Hangman Creek is generally poor and state standards for fecal coliform, temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen are often not met. In Upper Hangman Creek, low dissolved oxygen, high levels of total suspened solids, and high temperatures impair stream conditions and salmonid distribution. During the spring, total dissolved gas saturation often exceeds the standard in the Little Falls Pool, whereas dissolved oxygen levels fall below 4 mg/L in the summer.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timimg -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Adults Land uses, water diversions, and dams have altered the spring freshet such that the current annual peak flow event occurs rapidly rather than the natural condition of gradual run-off, which consequently creates low, late summer base flows that limit habitat area and complexity.
REDBAND TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Adults Non-native rainbow trout releases lead to hybridization with native redband trout.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults The development of hydropower facilities without fish passage facilities limits genetic exchange, distribution, and habitat connectivity for fish species.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Embedded substrate and reduced habitat complexity, due to anthropogenic activities, limits native salmonid populations.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian zones have been severely impacted by agriculture, grazing, forest management, road construction and other activities.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Predation by non-native fishes has depleted native fishes in the Spokane arm of Lake Roosevelt.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation All Fine sediment is the most common problem throughout the watershed.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Heavy Metal; Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Excessive nutrients exist in the Spokane River below Spokane Falls providing conditions for aquatic vegetation to thrive in low velocity habitats. Accumulation of decaying aquatic vegetation creates biological oxygen demands exacerbating already low oxygen concentrations. dissolved oxygen levels fall below 4 mg/L in the summer.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All In the Spokane River above Spokane Falls, increased water temperature and low dissolved oxygen concentrations are on the 303(d) list. High levels of total dissolved gas is a major problem below Long Lake Dam. Due to the continual series of reservoirs, dissolved gas cannot reach equilibrium. Approximately half of the Little Spokane drainage has impaired water quality throughout the year. Water quality in Hangman Creek is generally poor and state standards for fecal coliform, temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen are often not met. In Upper Hangman Creek, low dissolved oxygen, high levels of total suspened solids, and high temperatures impair stream conditions and salmonid distribution. During the spring, total dissolved gas saturation often exceeds the standard in the Little Falls Pool, whereas dissolved oxygen levels fall below 4 mg/L in the summer.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timimg -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Adults Land uses, water diversions, and dams have altered the spring freshet such that the current annual peak flow event occurs rapidly rather than the natural condition of gradual run-off, which consequently creates low, late summer base flows that limit habitat area and complexity.