Province Summary


Kalama Subbasin Summary

The Kalama River Subbasin is a 205 square mile watershed extending from the southwest slopes of Mount St. Helens to the Columbia River, where it enters at RM 73.1. The watershed is bordered by the Toutle and Coweeman basins to the north and the NF Lewis basin to the south. The headwaters are in Skamania County although 99% of the basin lies within Cowlitz County.

The elevation ranges from sea level at the Columbia River to near 8000 feet on Mount St. Helens. Past eruptions of Mount St. Helens and associated lahars have shaped the landscape of the basin over the past 20,000 years. The lahars left unconsolidated deposits creating slope stability concerns in the steep upper watershed.

The lower basin is low gradient, with tidal influence extending up to RM 2.8. Lower Kalama Falls at RM 10 blocked most anadromous fish access except for summer steelhead until it was laddered in 1936. Only summer steelhead and some spring Chinook are now passed above the falls. The river courses through a narrow V-shaped valley above RM 10. Passage to all anadromous fish is blocked by a falls at RM 35. The upper watershed tributaries have steep gradients only accessible to anadromous fish in the lowest reaches.

Most of the basin is forested and nearly the entire basin is managed for commercial timber production (96%). Only 1.3% is non-commercial forest and 1.5% is cropland. Areas along the lower river have experienced industrial and residential development, resulting in channelization of the lower river. A portion of the upper basin is located within the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. National Monument land is managed primarily for natural resource protection and tourism.

Population density and development in the watershed are low. The year 2000 population was approximately 5,300 persons. The City of Kalama, located near the mouth, is the only urban area in the subbasin. Residential development has increased in recent years along the lower mainstem Kalama. Future development pressures are likely to continue to be located within the mainstem river valley and the lower portions of the larger mainstem tributaries.

Source: Lower Columbia Province Plan

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Kalama Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia  Cascade Fall  Kalama  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
500 natural adults 298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: 3,598 spawners (natural)474
Threatened Status & Trends
Spring Chinook Lower Columbia  Cascade Spring  Kalama  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
300 natural adults298
 
Adult Escapement (natural)
2014: 187 adults (natural)117
Threatened Status & Trends
Chum Columbia River  Cascade  Kalama  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
900 natural adults 298
 
Unknown Threatened No Data
Coho Lower Columbia  Cascade  Kalama  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
500 natural adults298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: 239 spawners 474
Threatened Status & Trends
Coastal Cutthroat       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None300
 
Unknown Species of Concern No Data
Summer Steelhead Lower Columbia  Cascade Summer  Kalama  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
500 natural adults298
 
Adult Escapement (natural)
2015: 814 adults (natural)116
Threatened Status & Trends
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia  Cascade Winter  Kalama  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
600 natural adults 298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: 2,106 spawners474
Juvenile Outmigrants
2017: 14,043 juveniles (summer and winter)474
Threatened Status & Trends
    
View abundance data for Kalama Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Kalama Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Fallert Creek Hatchery View View View View
Gobar Rearing Pond View View View View
Kalama Falls Salmon Hatchery View View View View
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Kalama Subbasin363, 360
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Fallert Creek Hatchery Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 327,984 2,721 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 2,569,453 46 8 / 30 / 2010
Spring Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 149,362 8 / 30 / 2010
Summer Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 30,651 5 8 / 30 / 2010
Gobar Rearing Pond Spring Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 285,560 8 / 30 / 2010
Summer Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 56,583 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 64,990 8 / 30 / 2010
Kalama Falls Salmon Hatchery Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 355,338 7,589 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 2,957,203 4,278 8 / 30 / 2010
Spring Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 940 8 / 30 / 2010
Summer Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 497 (additional 1,316 adults of mixed origin) 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 56,175 259 (additional 1,129 adults of mixed origin) 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Kalama Subbasin369

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Summer Steelhead Kalama River 500 500 -- -- -- Medium
Winter Steelhead Kalama River 470 300 -- -- -- Low
Fall Chinook Kalama River 700 <50 -- -- -- Very Low
Spring Chinook Kalama River -- 100 -- -- -- Very Low
Coho Kalama River -- <50 -- -- -- Very Low
Chum Kalama River -- <100 -- -- -- Very Low
Limiting Factors in the Kalama Subbasin 362

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Fry Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Fry, adults Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, adults Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Adults Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation All Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles, adults Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation All Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Eggs, summer parr The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Eggs, winter parr Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Eggs, summer parr The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Eggs, winter parr Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Eggs, summer parr Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.