Province Summary


Washougal Subbasin Summary

The headwaters of the Washougal River lie primarily in Skamania County. The river flows mostly southwest through Clark County and enters the Columbia River at RM 121, near the town of Camas, Washington. The drainage area is approximately 240 square miles.

The upper mainstem of the Washougal flows through a narrow, deep canyon until it reaches Salmon Falls at RM 14.5. Below this, the river valley widens, with the lower two miles lying within the broad Columbia River floodplain lowlands. Elevations range from 3,200 feet in the headwaters of Bear Creek to nearly sea level at the Columbia. Due to steep and rugged conditions in most of the basin, development is limited to the lower valley within the Columbia River floodplain. Fish passage was historically blocked to most anadromous fish except steelhead at Salmon Falls (RM 14.5) until a fish ladder was built there in the 1950s. Anadromous fish currently reach only as far as Dougan Falls at RM 21, although summer steelhead regularly negotiate the falls and continue further upstream.

Most of the basin is forested and managed for timber production. Of the basin»s land area, 61% is privately owned and most of the remainder is State Forest land. A small portion of the upper basin lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, comprising approximately 8% of the total basin area. Not including the Lacamas Creek basin, most of the private land is owned by private commercial timber companies, except for agricultural land in the lower river valleys, scattered rural residential development, and the urban areas in and around the towns of Washougal and Camas. The Lacamas Creek drainage is made up largely of private land in rural residential or agricultural uses, with the westernmost portion of the basin within the expanding Vancouver metropolitan area.

Source: Lower Columbia Province Plan

Status and Trends of Focal Species in Washougal Subbasin
 
Species ESU MPG Population Biological Objective (s) Biological Status Federal Status Data / Charts
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia  Cascade Fall  Washougal  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,200 natural adults298
 
NOSA Estimate
2015: 1,703 spawners 474
Threatened Status & Trends
Chum Columbia River  Cascade  Washougal  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,300 natural adults298
 
Unknown Threatened No Data
Coho Lower Columbia  Cascade  Washougal  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
1,500 natural adults298
 
2,047 natural adults collected at Washougal Hatchery and another 18 collected at the Skamania hatchery514 Threatened No Data
Coastal Cutthroat       Subbasin Plan Objective :
None298
 
Unknown Species of Concern No Data
Summer Steelhead Lower Columbia  Cascade Summer  Washougal  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
500 natural adults298
 
Adult Escapement (natural)
2015: 783 adults (natural)134
Threatened Status & Trends
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia  Cascade Winter  Washougal  Draft Recovery Plan Criteria :
350 natural adults298
 
Adult Escapement (natural)
2015: 648 adults (natural)133
Threatened Status & Trends
    
View abundance data for Washougal Subbasin
 
Hatcheries located in Washougal Subbasin
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Hatchery Info Releases / Returns Program Reviews(APRE / HSRG / HGMP / USFWS) Map
Skamania Hatchery View View View View
Washougal State Salmon Hatchery View View View View
 
Hatchery Releases and Returns to Washougal Subbasin363, 359, 360
**Hatchery data will be updated in 2016**

Some releases into subbasins may be from hatcheries located in other provinces and subbasins. Hatchery releases of anadromous fish, within the geographic range of an ESU/DPS, are listed accordingly.
 
Hatchery / Acclimation Pond Species ESU/DPS Released in 2009 Returns to Collection Facility in 2009 Data as of
Skamania Hatchery Summer Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 71,807 3,263 8 / 30 / 2010
Winter Steelhead Lower Columbia River Steelhead DPS 68,501 243 8 / 30 / 2010
Washougal State Salmon Hatchery Coho Lower Columbia River Coho ESU 237,000 5,877 8 / 30 / 2010
Fall Chinook Lower Columbia River Chinook ESU 3,067,999 6,786 8 / 30 / 2010
Recovery Status for ESA-Listed Salmon and Steelhead in the Washougal Subbasin369

Updated : 5/27/2010

Species Population Abundance Threshold Mean Abundance Major Spawning Area Growth Rate Recruits / Spawners Current Viability
Summer Steelhead Washougal River 450 400 -- -- -- Medium
Winter Steelhead Washougal River 480 300 -- -- -- Low
Fall Chinook Washougal River 760 <50 -- -- -- Very Low
Coho Washougal River -- <50 -- -- -- Very Low
Chum Washougal River -- <100 -- -- -- Very Low
Limiting Factors in the Washougal Subbasin 362

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Adults Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian degradation; Impervious Surfaces Adults Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Eggs Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Riparian function is degraded in upper reaches. Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation All Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation All Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Riparian function is degraded in upper reaches. Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Summer parr Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Summer parr Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Summer parr Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian degradation; Impervious Surfaces Fry Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Fry Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Summer parr Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Fry, summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Riparian function is degraded in upper reaches. Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Fry, summer parr Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Fry, summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Fry, summer parr Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage(s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Fry Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces Fry Riparian function is degraded in upper reaches. Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Eggs, fry Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Fry Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Fry Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Eggs, fry Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.