Limiting Factors



Columbia Cascade Province

Okanogan Subbasin 402, 405

Bull Trout
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Introduction of brook trout threatens bull trout through competition and hybridization
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Lack of flow functions as a barrier in streams throughout the subbasin limiting immigration and emigration.
RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Lack of flow functions as a barrier in streams throughout the subbasin limiting immigration and emigration.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Summer Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.