Limiting Factors



Columbia Cascade Province

Wenatchee Subbasin 406, 407

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Competition with brook trout limits bull trout productivity in the upper watersheds.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Predation by brook trout limits bull trout productivity in the upper watersheds.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Low flows are exacerbated by surface water diversions and ground water withdrawals. The Mission, Peshastin, Chumstick, Icicle creeks and Lower Wenatchee River, are 303d listed for low in-stream flows. Low flows and associated high in-stream temperatures prevent or impeded access to spawning grounds and reduce rearing habitat.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to ocean and fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles; adults Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Low flows are exacerbated by surface water diversions and ground water withdrawals. The Mission, Peshastin, Chumstick, Icicle creeks and Lower Wenatchee River, are 303d listed for low in-stream flows. Low flows and associated high in-stream temperatures prevent or impeded access to spawning grounds and reduce rearing habitat.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
SUMMER CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Summer Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Low flows are exacerbated by surface water diversions and ground water withdrawals. The Mission, Peshastin, Chumstick, Icicle creeks and Lower Wenatchee River, are 303d listed for low in-stream flows. Low flows and associated high in-stream temperatures prevent or impeded access to spawning grounds and reduce rearing habitat.