Limiting Factors



Columbia Estuary Province

Elochoman Subbasin 362

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray chum spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Adults Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation All Reaches in the lower mainstem below Duck Creek have been impacted by decreased habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Increased sediment is a problem in reaches below Duck Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Fry Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Fry Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles, adults Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Many reaches have been impacted by decreased habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Increased sediment is a problem in reaches below Duck Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Juveniles, adults Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Reaches below the West Fork Elochoman have been negatively affected by decreased habitat diversity and channel stability. Lack of LWD has precluded the formation of pools.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, summer parr Reaches below the West Fork Elochoman have been negatively affected by sedimentation caused primarily by road erosion.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Juveniles Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Adults Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adults Reaches between Beaver Creek and the West Fork Elochoman have been degraded by decreased habitat diversity and channel stability. Lack of LWD has precluded the formation of pools.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, adults Reaches between Beaver Creek and the West Fork Elochoman have been degraded by sedimentation caused primarily by road erosion..
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Fry Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Fry Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Mainstem and tributary reaches between Clear Creek and the North Fork Elochoman are negatively affected by decreased habitat diversity and channel stability. Lack of LWD has precluded the formation of pools.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, fry, summer parr Mainstem and tributary reaches between Clear Creek and the North Fork Elochoman are negatively affected sedimentation caused primarily by road erosion.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Summer parr Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.