Limiting Factors



Columbia Cascade Province

Entiat Subbasin 402

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Introduction of brook trout threatens bull trout through competition and hybridization.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Illegal Harvest Adults Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles, adults Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Erosion in upland areas in Fox, McCRee, Brenegan, Preston, and Mud creeks, Crum Canyon and the mainstem Entiat between Fox and Stormy creeks contribute to the percent fines in the lower Entiat. High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Most of the mainstem Entiat has been channelized and flood control measures have been implemented. The connectivity of the floodplain from the mouth of Mad River to Pine Flats Campground (river mile 4) has been reduced by orchards, Ardenvoir, County Road 119, and Forest Service Road 5700.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks. In the lower mainstem Mad River, from the mouth to Pine Flats Campground, there is a loss of riparian connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Low stream channel complexity is the primary limitation to productivity of salmonids in the lower 12.4 miles. Stream sinuosity is low, with few point bars for gravel accumulation. Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence. Large woody debris is lacking throughout the middle section of the Entiat River and Lower Mad River. Lack of overwintering juvenile habitat, especially in the Lower Mad River, limits productivity and distribution.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest; Illegal Harvest Adults Coho are subject to ocean and fresh water harvest. Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish Juveniles Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Complete or partial barriers exist on Brenegan, Preston, Stormy, Mud, and Tillicum creeks. Eighteen fish passage barriers exist from Potato Moraine to Entiat Flats.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish Juveniles Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on juvenile lamprey
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Complete or partial barriers exist on Brenegan, Preston, Stormy, Mud, and Tillicum creeks. Eighteen fish passage barriers exist from Potato Moraine to Entiate Flats.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Most of the mainstem Entiat has been channelized and flood control measures have been implemented. The connectivity of the floodplain from the mouth of Mad River to Pine Flats Campground (river mile 4) has been reduced by orchards, Ardenvoir, County Road 119, and Forest Service Road 5700.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks. In the lower mainstem Mad River, from the mouth to Pine Flats Campground, there is a loss of riparian connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Low stream channel complexity is the primary limitation to productivity of salmonids in the lower 12.4 miles. Stream sinuosity is low, with few point bars for gravel accumulation. Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence. Large woody debris is lacking throughout the middle section of the Entiat River and Lower Mad River. Lack of overwintering juvenile habitat, especially in the Lower Mad River, limits productivity and distribution.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest; Illegal Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest. Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids. Avian and pinniped predation are concerns.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Exceedence of state water quality standards for temperature, from July-September, in the Lower Entiat River. Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic. Cold winter water temperatures affect egg incubation survival, time of emergence, and winter rearing habitat in the lower Entiat.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Complete or partial barriers exist on Brenegan, Preston, Stormy, Mud, and Tillicum creeks. Eighteen fish passage barriers exist from Potato Moraine to Entiate Flats.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Most of the mainstem Entiat has been channelized and flood control measures have been implemented. The connectivity of the floodplain from the mouth of Mad River to Pine Flats Campground (river mile 4) has been reduced by orchards, Ardenvoir, County Road 119, and Forest Service Road 5700.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks. In the lower mainstem Mad River, from the mouth to Pine Flats Campground, there is a loss of riparian connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Low stream channel complexity is the primary limitation to productivity of salmonids in the lower 12.4 miles. Stream sinuosity is low, with few point bars for gravel accumulation. Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence. Large woody debris is lacking throughout the middle section of the Entiat River and Lower Mad River. Lack of overwintering juvenile habitat, especially in the Lower Mad River, limits productivity and distribution.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest; Illegal Harvest Adults Steelhead are subject to fresh water harvest. Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles Avian and pinniped predation are concerns. Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Sediment and cobble embeddedness problematic in the Lower Entiat River. Erosion in upland areas in Fox, McCRee, Brenegan, Preston, and Mud creeks, Crum Canyon and the mainstem Entiat between Fox and Stormy creeks contribute to the percent fines in the lower Entiat. High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Exceedence of state water quality standards for temperature, from July-September, in the Lower Entiat River. Cold winter water temperatures affect egg incubation survival, time of emergence, and winter rearing habitat in the lower Entiat. Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
SUMMER/FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Most of the mainstem Entiat has been channelized and flood control measures have been implemented. The connectivity of the floodplain from the mouth of Mad River to Pine Flats Campground (river mile 4) has been reduced by orchards, Ardenvoir, County Road 119, and Forest Service Road 5700.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks. In the lower mainstem Mad River, from the mouth to Pine Flats Campground, there is a loss of riparian connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Low stream channel complexity is the primary limitation to productivity of salmonids in the lower 12.4 miles. Stream sinuosity is low, with few point bars for gravel accumulation. Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence. Large woody debris is lacking throughout the middle section of the Entiat River and Lower Mad River. Lack of overwintering juvenile habitat, especially in the Lower Mad River, limits productivity and distribution.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest; Illegal Harvest Adults Steelhead are subject to fresh water harvest. Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles Avian and pinniped predation are concerns. Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Sediment and cobble embeddedness problematic in the Lower Entiat River. Erosion in upland areas in Fox, McCRee, Brenegan, Preston, and Mud creeks, Crum Canyon and the mainstem Entiat between Fox and Stormy creeks contribute to the percent fines in the lower Entiat. High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Exceedence of state water quality standards for temperature, from July-September, in the Lower Entiat River. Cold winter water temperatures affect egg incubation survival, time of emergence, and winter rearing habitat in the lower Entiat. Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Illegal Harvest Adults Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles, adults Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Erosion in upland areas in Fox, McCRee, Brenegan, Preston, and Mud creeks, Crum Canyon and the mainstem Entiat between Fox and Stormy creeks contribute to the percent fines in the lower Entiat. High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Exceedence of state water quality standards for temperature, from July-September, in the Lower Entiat River. Cold winter water temperatures affect egg incubation survival, time of emergence, and winter rearing habitat in the lower Entiat. Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species.