Limiting Factors



Columbia Gorge Province

Big White Salmon Subbasin 376, 377

COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Passage Impediments Juveniles, adults Construction and operation of Condit Dam prevents access to upstream areas by anadromous fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Retention, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adult spawners Lack of recruitment of gravel below Condit Dam limits spawning. Wood removal has decreased critical habitat for juvenile fish rearing.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Decreased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention All Condit Dam impairs sediment transportation.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All The natural hydrologic regime has been altered by Condit Dam.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, adult spawners Lack of recruitment of gravel below Condit Dam limits spawning. Wood removal has decreased critical habitat for juvenile fish rearing.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Decreased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization, Riparian Degradation All Increased sediment loads have decreased fall Chinook productivity below Condit Dam.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All The natural hydrologic regime has been altered by Condit Dam. Low minimum flows and increases in peak flows have decreased fall Chinook productivity. Power peaking causes diel flow variation, which has led to dewatering, stranding, and an increase in bioenergetics losses due to movements associated with daily flow changes.
RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Past timber harvest, road building, agriculture, and grazing have decreased instream habitat complexity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Past timber harvest, road building, agriculture, and grazing have degraded riparian habitat and function, and limited LWD recruitment.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Passage Impediments Juveniles, adults Construction and operation of Condit Dam prevents access to upstream areas by anadromous fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Retention, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adult spawners Lack of recruitment of gravel below Condit Dam limits spawning. Wood removal has decreased critical habitat for juvenile fish rearing.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Decreased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention All Condit Dam impairs sediment transportation.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All The natural hydrologic regime has been altered by Condit Dam. Low minimum flows and increases in peak flows have decreased spring Chinook productivity. Power peaking causes diel flow variation, which has led to dewatering, stranding, and an increase in bioenergetics losses due to movements associated with daily flow changes.
STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Passage Impediments Juveniles, adults Construction and operation of Condit Dam prevents access to upstream areas by anadromous fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Retention, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adult spawners Lack of recruitment of gravel below Condit Dam limits spawning. Wood removal has decreased critical habitat for juvenile fish rearing.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Decreased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention All Condit Dam impairs sediment transportation.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All The natural hydrologic regime has been altered by Condit Dam. Low minimum flows and increases in peak flows have decreased spring Chinook productivity. Power peaking causes diel flow variation, which has led to dewatering, stranding, and an increase in bioenergetics losses due to movements associated with daily flow changes.

Columbia Gorge Subbasin 378

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults Chum have a low propensity to ascend the fishways at Bonneville Dam. Transportation corridors and/or hatchery weirs block chum access to tributary habitats.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Fry, adult spawners Mainstem spawning and rearing habitat has been lost due to inundation by Bonneville Dam.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adult spawners Historic chum spawning, incubation, and rearing areas in low gradient streams and rivers have been lost due to urban, industrial, and agricultural development.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Recruitment of large woody debris to lower reaches of tributaries and nearshore areas of the mainstem has been reduced.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, fry, adult spawners Sedimentation impacts spawning and rearing habitats used by chum in tributaries and nearshore areas of the mainstem.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Eggs, fry Operations provide for intermittent dewatering of spawning gravels used by chum and changes to seasonal and longer-term recruitment of spawning gravels.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Passage measures developed for salmon do not necessarily provide optimum benefits to lampreys.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Juveniles Contaminants may affect survival and growth of lamprey.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Frequent pool elevation fluctuations impact ability of juvenile lamprey to use nearshore substrates for long periods of time.
WHITE STURGEON
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adult spawners Mainstem spawning habitat has been lost due to inundation by Bonneville Dam.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults White sturgeon are unable to use fish ladders at Columbia River dams.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Sport and commercial harvest limit adult white sturgeon abundance.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Eggs, adults Contaminants may reduce adhesiveness of eggs. Contaminants also may affect survival, growth, and reproductive potential of white sturgeon adults.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Eggs Elevated water temperature affects white sturgeon eggs.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Adult spawners Altered flows create suboptimal spawning conditions for white sturgeon.

Fifteenmile Subbasin 376, 379

COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Culverts in Lower Eightmile and Ramsey creeks function as partial or complete barriers.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Fifteenmile Creek has been extensively channelized and straightened and has subsequently downcut.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Channel stability is a negative factor for egg incubation, fry colonization, rearing, and overwintering in all reaches except headwater areas.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for sediment on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Fifteenmile and Eightmile creeks are listed for temperature 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles, adults Fluctuations in flow levels are exaggerated by irrigation and human-caused changes (e.g., high road densities in rural areas and forest roads).
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Culverts in Lower Eightmile and Ramsey creeks function as partial or complete barriers.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for sediment on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Fifteenmile and Eightmile creeks are listed for temperature 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles, adults Fluctuations in flow levels are exaggerated by irrigation and human-caused changes (e.g., high road densities in rural areas and forest roads).
RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Culverts in Lower Eightmile and Ramsey creeks function as partial or complete barriers.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Fifteenmile Creek has been extensively channelized and straightened and has subsequently downcut.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Channel stability is a negative factor for egg incubation, fry colonization, rearing, and overwintering in all reaches except headwater areas.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for sediment on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Fifteenmile and Eightmile creeks are listed for temperature 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles, adults Fluctuations in flow levels are exaggerated by irrigation and human-caused changes (e.g., high road densities in rural areas and forest roads).
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Fifteenmile Creek has been extensively channelized and straightened and has subsequently downcut.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Channel stability is a negative factor for egg incubation, fry colonization, rearing, and overwintering in all reaches except headwater areas.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for sediment on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list. Priority sites for reducing sedimentation are the lower and upper reaches of Eightmile Creek, the upper reaches of Ramsey Creek, and the lower reaches of Fifteenmile Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for temperature on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list. Temperature restoration is a high priority in Fifteenmile Creek from Seufert Falls to Ramsey Creek, in Eightmile Creek from the mouth to the Wolf Run Diversion, in Fivemile Creek from the mouth to North Fork, in Ramsey Creek from the mouth to Olsen Diversion, and Dry Creek.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Fluctuations in flow levels are exaggerated by irrigation and human-caused changes (e.g., high road densities in rural areas and forest roads). Low flows affect steelhead summer rearing in the lower reaches of Eightmile and Fivemile creeks, in Fifteenmile Creek from the confluence upstream to Dufur, in Ramsey Creek from the confluence to the Olsen Diversion and in Dry Creek. Peak flows affect steelhead egg incubation, fry colonization, and overwintering in the lower reaches of Dry, Fivemile, Eightmile and Fifteenmile creeks.

Hood Subbasin 380, 381, 368

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish. Clear Branch Dam, and the Eliot and Coe diversions block bull trout.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Clear Branch Dam inundated bull trout spawning habitat.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Increased sediment from roads is a major limiting factor for bull trout.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Timber harvest and roads have increased the flashiness of the system.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Increased sediment from roads is a major limiting factor.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Timber harvest and roads have increased the flashiness of the system.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray coho spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Past riparian harvest, transportation networks, and land-use have modified channels and decreased interactions with the floodplain.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Clear Branch Dam inundated coho spawning habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load impacts coho throughout their distribution.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray fall Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Past riparian harvest, transportation networks, and land-use have modified channels and decreased interactions with the floodplain.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Fry Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load impacts both fall and spring Chinook throughout their distribution.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish and may be a barrier to Pacific lamprey.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles; adults Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Increased sediment from roads is a major limiting factor.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray spring Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load impacts both fall and spring Chinook throughout their distribution.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish. Clear Branch and Neal Creek Diversion dams are barriers to steelhead.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Past riparian harvest, transportation networks, and land-use have modified channels and decreased interactions with the floodplain.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Clear Branch Dam inundated steelhead spawning habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Increased sedimentation from roads and irrigation networks limits egg incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish. Clear Branch and Neal Creek Diversion dams are barriers to steelhead.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Past riparian harvest, transportation networks, and land-use have modified channels and decreased interactions with the floodplain.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Clear Branch Dam inundated steelhead spawning habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Increased sedimentation from roads and irrigation networks limits winter steelhead egg incubation in Baldwin, Culvert, Evans, and Tieman creeks. Productivity of winter steelhead in Neal and Lenz creeks is limited by pesticides and herbicides.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Herbicides, Pesticides Pollution Eggs, juveniles Productivity of winter steelhead in Neal and Lenz creeks is limited by pesticides and herbicides.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.

Klickitat Subbasin 376, 382

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Filling; Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization All Loss of riparian vegetation, modifications of streambanks, channel instability, decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River have altered thermal regimes and affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Side channels have been isolated in Diamond Fork, and the upper mainstem of the Klickitat River. There has been a loss of wetlands in upper Swale Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Fry Floodplain roads, both abandoned and active, have led to channelization and constriction problems.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults A 2,400 ft flume, 2 culverts, and dam in Snyder Creek create a depth/velocity barrier. Poor passage percentage and survival exists at Lyle Falls fish ladder. Access to Dead Canyon is limited due to an undersized road crossing and road bed construction.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Side channels have been isolated in Diamond Fork, and the upper mainstem of the Klickitat River. There has been a loss of wetlands in upper Swale Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
-- Artificial Propogation Juveniles Non-native Skamania stock steelhead may affect fish from the Klickitat population.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults A 2,400 ft flume, 2 culverts, and dam in Snyder Creek create a depth/velocity barrier. Poor passage percentage and survival exists at Lyle Falls fish ladder. Access to Dead Canyon is limited due to an undersized road crossing and road bed construction.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Side channels have been isolated in Diamond Fork, and the upper mainstem of the Klickitat River. There has been a loss of wetlands in upper Swale Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows

Little White Salmon Subbasin 383

Chum
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry Current large woody debris levels are low throughout the basin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Fry The greatest impairments relative to sediment are located in the lower two watersheds and in the Lava Creek drainage.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization; Forest Management Migration Impediments Adults Two dams (one at the Little White Salmon Hatchery and the other on Lost Creek (north) adjacent to a diversion intake) restrict passage. Fifteen culverts present barriers to fish passage.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Wood/Structure Removal Fry Current large woody debris levels are low throughout the basin especially in Lost Creek (north) and Goose Lake Creek.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Juveniles Little White Salmon headwaters, mid-Little White Salmon/Cabbage Creek, mid-Little White Salmon/Berry Creek and the two lowermost mainstem watersheds are considered moderately impaired relative to conditions that influence sediment supply. The greatest impairments relative to sediment are located in the lower two watersheds and in the Lava Creek drainage.
Water Quality Temperature; Turbidity -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Adults High temperatures in Drano Lake may affect passage. Exceedance of the temperature standard has occurred in Dry Creek, the mainstem above 201 Road, the mainstem above Lusk Creek, the mainstem at Berry Creek, and the mainstem above Moss Creek. Turbidity levels are high throughout the mainstem and Lusk Creek and are attributed to bank cutting on the mainstem and timber harvest in the upper basin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Flow diversion on Lost Creek directs flow into the Coyote Ditch reducing flow in Lower Lost Creek by one-third during low flow periods.

Wind Subbasin 376, 383

Chum
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All The Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juvenile, adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juvenile, adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All The Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Fry, summer parr Bank stability concerns exist for Compass, Upper Trout, and Layout creeks as well as for upper, middle, and lower Wind basins. The middle Wind River (RM 12-19) experiences rapid channel migration and avulsions during high flow events. The mainstem Wind River between RM 12 and 19 contains rural residential and agricultural development that has resulted in cleared riparian forests.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, summer parr Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude. The Wind headwaters and subwatersheds for Ninemile, Compass/Crater, Upper Trout, Upper Panther, and Layout creeks rank the highest for increased peak flows. Dry and Martha creeks as well as portions of the Trout Creek Basin go subsurface in late summer. Irrigation occurs in Trout Creek.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Fry, summer parr Bank stability concerns exist for Compass, Upper Trout, and Layout creeks as well as for upper, middle, and lower Wind basins. The middle Wind River (RM 12-19) experiences rapid channel migration and avulsions during high flow events. The mainstem Wind River between RM 12 and 19 contains rural residential and agricultural development that has resulted in cleared riparian forests.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, summer parr Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude. The Wind headwaters and subwatersheds for Ninemile, Compass/Crater, Upper Trout, Upper Panther, and Layout creeks rank the highest for increased peak flows. Dry and Martha creeks as well as portions of the Trout Creek Basin go subsurface in late summer. Irrigation occurs in Trout Creek.