Limiting Factors



Columbia Plateau Province

Columbia Lower Middle Subbasin

COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three or four mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Juvenile salmonids are being harvested by birds and fish predators at rates higher than prior to hydro-development.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Juveniles Contaminant inputs from upstream land-use activities are often trapped in the reservoirs behind the dams.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Juveniles High temperatures during upstream migration of salmonids limit productivity.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Peak flows and frequent water level fluctuations have a deleterious and sometimes fatal effect on juvenile salmoinds. Fluctuations in flows can delay adult salmonid migrations.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three or four mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Juvenile salmonids are being harvested by birds and fish predators at rates higher than prior to hydro-development.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Juveniles Contaminant inputs from upstream land-use activities are often trapped in the reservoirs behind the dams.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Juveniles High temperatures during upstream migration of salmonids limit productivity.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Peak flows and frequent water level fluctuations have a deleterious and sometimes fatal effect on juvenile salmoinds. Fluctuations in flows can delay adult salmonid migrations.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Rock Creek Road and other structures in the Rock Creek watershed have altered the floodplain and confined the creek and tributaries.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Lack of habitat diversity (pools with cover) and lack of large woody debris in Rock Creek and its tributaries limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three or four mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Juvenile salmonids are being harvested by birds and fish predators at rates higher than prior to hydro-development.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Juveniles Contaminant inputs from upstream land-use activities are often trapped in the reservoirs behind the dams. Fluctuations in toxics have reduced native aquatic vegetation and fauna in lower sections of Rock Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Juveniles High temperatures during upstream migration of salmonids limit productivity. In Rock Creek, greater summer maxima and winter minima temperatures affect fish life histories. Fluctuations in water quality parameters (i.e., temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients) have reduced native aquatic vegetation and fauna in lower sections of Rock Creek.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Peak flows and frequent water level fluctuations have a deleterious and sometimes fatal effect on juvenile salmoinds. Fluctuations in flows can delay adult salmonid migrations.
WHITE STURGEON
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults White sturgeon are unable to use existing fish ladders
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Adult spawners Mainstem spawning habitat has been lost due to inundation by mainstem dams.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Sport and commercial harvest limit adult white sturgeon abundance.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Operation of the hydro-facilities has disrupted the historical migration patterns of white sturgeon and resulted in fragmentation of habitat and populations.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Eggs, adults Sedimentation/contaminants may reduce adhesiveness of eggs. Contaminants also may affect survival, growth, and reproductive potential of white sturgeon adults.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Eggs Elevated water temperature affects white sturgeon eggs.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Lack of multi-day uniformality in flow, turbulence, and turbidity result in white sturgeon year-class failures.

Crab Subbasin 386

BLUEGILL
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
KOKANEE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Channel confinement limits in-stream habitat diversity and complexity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation by or Competition with Non-Native Species -- Species Management; Fishery Management Species Introduction; Predators: Fish Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Lack of spawning habitat exists due to sedimentation.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
LARGEMOUTH BASS
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Migration Impediments Adults Barriers limit trout production throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation All Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement and invasive plant species contribute to poor riparian conditions.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Channel confinement limits in-stream habitat diversity and complexity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Lack of spawning habitat exists due to sedimentation.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All Flows have increased in parts of the subbasin due to the management of croplands, whereas elsewhere flows are intermittent. Lack of habitat connectivity due to intermittent surface flows exists throughout the subbasin.
SMALLMOUTH BASS
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement and invasive plant species contribute to poor riparian conditions.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Channel confinement limits in-stream habitat diversity and complexity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass five dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation by or Competition with Non-Native Species -- Species Management; Fishery Management Species Introduction; Predators: Fish Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adults Lack of spawning habitat exists due to sedimentation.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Summer parr, adult spawners Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Summer parr, adult spawners Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All Flows have increased in parts of the subbasin due to the management of croplands, whereas elsewhere flows are intermittent. Lack of habitat connectivity due to intermittent surface flows exists throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER/FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement and invasive plant species contribute to poor riparian conditions.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Channel confinement limits in-stream habitat diversity and complexity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass five dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation by or Competition with Non-Native Species -- Species Management; Fishery Management Species Introduction; Predators: Fish Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adults Lack of spawning habitat exists due to sedimentation.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Summer parr, adult spawners Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Summer parr, adult spawners Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All Flows have increased in parts of the subbasin due to the management of croplands, whereas elsewhere flows are intermittent. Lack of habitat connectivity due to intermittent surface flows exists throughout the subbasin.
WALLEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
YELLOW PERCH
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.

Deschutes Subbasin 376, 387, 388

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Forest Management; Urbanization; Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has fragmemted bull trout populations. Passage barriers are present on Link and Spring creeks in the Metolius River watershed.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation by or Competition with Non-Native Species -- Species Management; Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Brook trout are a major threat to bull trout in the Warm Springs River due to competition for limited rearing habitat. Brook and brown trout may be limiting for some bull trout populations in the Metolius River watershed due to their potential for interaction.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Sedimentation from forest practices, catastrophic fire and extensive road system impacts stream substrate quality.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray fall Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Floodplains are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian corridors are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Large wood is generally lacking throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing.
REDBAND TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has fragmemted redband trout populations.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Degraded riparian vegetation reduces bank stability in small tributaries of the lower Deschutes River. Riparian corridors are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Agriculture Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation All Water temperatures in Buck Hollow, Willow, Bakeoven, Salt, Robin and Lake creeks exceed state water quality criteria for salmonid production. Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Trout movement is generally blocked by intermittent flow or subsurface flow. Low winter flows from Wickiup Dam to Bend limit fish productivity because large woody debris and spawning gravel along the stream margin become unavailable. Fish also become stranded in pools and side channels. Summer flow is very low from Bend to Big Falls because of irrigation diversions. Low summer flows also restrict fish populations in tributaries such as Trout Creek. Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing in Whychus Creek.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Floodplains are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian corridors are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Large wood is generally lacking throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray Summer Steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Floodplains are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian corridors are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Large wood is generally lacking throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Agriculture Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles High summer water temperatures in tributaries utilized by summer steelhead result from low flow and grazing pressure. Water temperatures in Buck Hollow, Willow, Bakeoven, Salt, Robin and Lake creeks exceed state water quality criteria for salmonid production. Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Eggs, juveniles Low summer flows restrict fish populations in tributaries such as Trout Creek. Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing.

John Day Subbasin 376, 389, 390

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Many locations in the John Day River and its tributaries are seasonally dammed (push-up dams) for irrigation.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Pool habitat has been lost, and large woody debris is minimal..
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal All Mining practices have degraded water quality.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Filling; Riparian Degradation All Water temperatures have increased from destruction of cold water springs.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties.
REDBAND TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Pool habitat has been lost, and large woody debris is minimal..
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal All Mining practices have degraded water quality.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Filling; Riparian Degradation All Water temperatures have increased from destruction of cold water springs.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Floodplains in the lower John Day River have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian areas in the lower John Day River have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors. Levels of large woody debris are severely reduced in the Middle Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Habitat quantity and diversity are key limiting factors in the Middle Fork, South Fork, North Fork, and Upper John Day watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load is a high priority limiting factor throughout the subbasin, especially in most tributaries of the Lower John Day and North Fork watersheds.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal Eggs, juveniles Leaching of toxic mine waste is a problem in the North Fork watershed.
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature; pH; Oxygen -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Eggs, juveniles Turbidity is very high in Cottonwood Creek after storm events. The Lower John Day and numerous tributaries throughout the subbasin are on the Oregon state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and fecal coliform standards.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties in Lower John Day tributaries.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Out-of-basin stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial passage barriers created by water diversions limit movements of juvenile salmonids in Bridge, Kahler, Muddy, Lower Rock, and Thirtymile creeks (Lower John Day), and in the South Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Floodplains in the lower John Day River have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian areas in the lower John Day River have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors. Levels of large woody debris are severely reduced in the Middle Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Juveniles Habitat diversity and large woody debris is lacking in Bridge, Mountain, Rock, Cottonwood, Ferry Canyon, Pine Hollow and Thirtymile creeks. Habitat quantity and diversity are key limiting factors in the Middle Fork, South Fork, North Fork, and Upper John Day watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load is a high priority limiting factor throughout the subbasin, especially in most tributaries of the Lower John Day and North Fork watersheds.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal Eggs, juveniles Leaching of toxic mine waste is a problem in the North Fork watershed.
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature; pH; Oxygen -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Eggs, juveniles Turbidity is very high in Cottonwood Creek after storm events. The Lower John Day and numerous tributaries throughout the subbasin are on the Oregon state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and fecal coliform standards.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties in Lower John Day tributaries.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Pool habitat has been lost, and large woody debris is minimal..
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal All Mining practices have degraded water quality.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Filling; Riparian Degradation All Water temperatures have increased from destruction of cold water springs.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties.

Snake Lower Subbasin

SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four to eight dams during migration.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Contaminant inputs from upstream land-use activities are often trapped in the reservoirs behind the dams.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All High temperatures during upstream migration of salmonids limit productivity.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Frequent water level fluctuations have a deleterious and sometimes fatal effect on juvenile salmoinds. Fluctuations in flows can delay adult salmonid migrations. Modification of the historic hydrograph due to dam operations can result in peak flows that do not coincide with optimal spawning temperatures and can result in year-class failures.

Tucannon Subbasin 391, 392, 393

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Obstructions exist in Pataha Creek at river miles 1.3, 10.8, 25.7, 35.2, and 43.8. Additional obstructions exist at river mile 1.1. and 0.4 in Bihmaier Gulch and Dry Pataha creeks, respectively. Obstructions exist in the Tucannon River at river mile 5.5, 13.5, 16, 38.4, and 43. The Marengo-Tumalum geographic area contains several locations where diversion screens are absent or ineffective.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris and pools limit productivity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Eggs, juveniles Sediment load impacts egg incubation and early life history stages. Marginal summer temperatures affect all life stages.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Marginal summer temperatures affect all life stages.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and reduced low flows, resulting from upland canopy removal, poor riparian conditions and loss of ground cover in the uplands, limit fry colonization and juvenile rearing life stages.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray fall Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Erosion Control; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Fry Lack of large woody debris and pools limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass six dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Predation, especially within reservoirs, is a primary limiting factor.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry Increased sediment load is problematic for fall Chinook. Sediment load impacts egg incubation and early life history stages.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and reduced low flows, resulting from upland canopy removal, poor riparian conditions and loss of ground cover in the uplands, limit fry colonization and juvenile rearing life stages.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray spring Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Obstructions exist in the Tucannon River at river mile 5.5, 13.5, 16, 38.4, and 43. The Marengo-Tumalum geographic area contains several locations where diversion screens are absent or ineffective.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Erosion Control; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Fry Lack of large woody debris and pools limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass six dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Predation, especially within reservoirs, is a primary limiting factor.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Elevated summer water temperatures are a problem for spawning (pre-spawn holding) and egg incubation for spring Chinook. Marginal summer temperatures affect juvenile rearing for spring Chinook.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and reduced low flows, resulting from upland canopy removal, poor riparian conditions and loss of ground cover in the uplands, limit fry colonization and juvenile rearing life stages.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray spring Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Obstructions exist in Pataha Creek at river miles 1.3, 10.8, 25.7, 35.2, and 43.8. Additional obstructions exist at river mile 1.1. and 0.4 in Bihmaier Gulch and Dry Pataha creeks, respectively. Obstructions exist in the Tucannon River at river mile 5.5, 13.5, 16, 38.4, and 43. The Marengo-Tumalum geographic area contains several locations where diversion screens are absent or ineffective.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Erosion Control; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Fry Lack of large woody debris and pools limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass six dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Predation, especially within reservoirs, is a primary limiting factor.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry Increased sediment load is problematic for steelhead. Sediment load impacts egg incubation and early life history stages.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Marginal summer temperatures affect juvenile rearing.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and reduced low flows, resulting from upland canopy removal, poor riparian conditions and loss of ground cover in the uplands, limit fry colonization and juvenile rearing life stages.

Umatilla Subbasin 376, 394, 395

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of channel complexity and large woody debris limit bull trout in the North Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Pollutants impact bull trout in Meacham Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Temperature is a key limiting factor for bull trout in the North Fork watershed.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Low flows from June to September in Meacham Creek above Butcher Creek and in Thomas and Spring Creeks in the South Fork Umatilla watershed may have been influenced by land management activities. Low flows prevent migratory bull trout on their spawning migration from entering Meacham Creek.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Three Mile Falls Dam impedes access for coho when flows are low. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels limit productivity of coho.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles High temperatures limit productivity of coho.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Three Mile Falls Dam impedes access for coho when flows are low. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels limit productivity of fall Chinook salmon.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles High temperatures limit productivity of fall Chinook salmon. Releases from McKay reservoir may create a thermal barrier for fall Chinook salmon at river mile 50.5 (cool water below, warm water above).
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids. Lack of channel complexity and large woody debris limit spring Chinook in the South Fork watershed.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles High temperature below river mile 85 is the most important factor limiting spring Chinook salmon
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Out-of-basin stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults McKay Dam blocks access to over 30 miles of summer steelhead spawning and rearing habitat. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels in the lower Umatilla River have decreased rearing habitat for summer steelhead.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles High temperatures in the lower Umatilla River have decreased rearing habitat for summer steelhead.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.

Walla Walla Subbasin 376, 394, 396

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Fisheries Management; Species Management Species Introduction; Interspecific Interaction Juveniles, adults Bull trout compete for food and space with nonnative rainbow trout and brown trout.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Numerous dams and diversion structures have been constructed on the mainstem Walla Walla River and in tributaries.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Channel confinement and riparian function, along with lack of large woody debris, have the greatest impact on bull trout throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Channel confinement and riparian function, along with lack of large woody debris, have the greatest impact on bull trout throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Mill Creek, South Fork, and North Fork do not meet state criteria for temperature. Phosphates are elevated in the South Fork.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All The North Fork does not meet state criteria for instream flow.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults The Siphon diversion and Hofer Dam partially block passage in the Touchet River. Numerous obstructions, including a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers project, and Yellowhawk and Bennington diversions impede passage in the Mill Creek watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Floodplains in the subbasin have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Reduced habitat quantity in the lower mainstem impacts migrating adult Chinook and downstream migrants.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation All High summer temperatures cause losses to spawning and pre-spawning spring Chinook in the mainstem above the Touchet River.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Reduced low flows cause losses to prespawn spring Chinook in Mill Creek.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Out-of-basin stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults The Siphon diversion and Hofer Dam partially block passage in the Touchet River. Numerous obstructions, including a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers project, and Yellowhawk and Bennington diversions impede passage in the Mill Creek watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Floodplains in the subbasin have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Reduced habitat quantity in the lower mainstem impacts migrating adult steelhead and larger downstream migrants. Lack of habitat diversity results in high losses of steelhead fry in the South Fork.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Sediment load impacts most life stages of steelhead in the mainstem from the mouth to Dry Creek, and in the lower Touchet River. Sediment also affects most life stages of steelhead in Pine Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation All High summer temperatures cause losses to most life stages of steelhead in the Touchet River. High temperatures also impede fry colonization and juvenile rearing for steelhead in Mill Creek.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Eggs, juveniles Increased peak flows impact steelhead fry in the South Fork.

Yakima Subbasin 393, 397, 376

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial or total flow/temperature blockages to fish migrations due to diversions exist throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles, adults Riparian communities (particularly black cottonwood) in the mainstem Yakima and Naches rivers are degraded due to changes in the hydrograph. Channel incision has disconnected Toppenish Creek from the floodplain below Simcoe Creek. Riparian vegetation in Toppenish Creek between Unit II Pump Canal and Star Route 22 has been modified by grazing and irrigated agriculture.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Grazing impacts affect bull trout during spawning periods. Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Elevated sediment loads exist throughout the subbasin due to high road densities, increases in peak flows, bank erosion, and floodplain loss.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Riparian Degradation Fry Summer/early-fall habitat availability is low or eliminated by low flow and high temperature in the lower Yakima River and Wapato Reach. Lack of habitat diversity and large woody debris is problematic throughout the subbasin. Excessive growth of in-channel aquatic vegetation in the lower/middle Yakima is problematic.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes; altered Flow Timing Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Riparian Degradation; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Riparian communities (particularly black cottonwood) in the mainstem Yakima and Naches rivers are degraded due to changes in the hydrograph. Riparian vegetation in Toppenish Creek between Unit II Pump Canal and Star Route 22 has been modified by grazing and irrigated agriculture. Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Avian and fish predation problems exist throughout the subbasin
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Juveniles Elevated sediment loads exist throughout the subbasin due to high road densities, increases in peak flows, bank erosion, and floodplain loss.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Elevated summer temperatures exist in lower reaches of tributaries and headwaters due to development, forest management, and grazing practices. Temperatures in the lower Yakima and Wapato Reach have increased to a point that returning fall-run adults must delay river entry and juveniles must migrate from the river earlier. The mainstem Middle Fork, North Fork, West Fork Teanaway River, and Stafford Creek are 303(d) listed for water temperature.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap and sustained low flows to lower Naches and from Union Gap downstream limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial or total flow/temperature blockages to fish migrations due to diversions exist throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Elevated summer temperatures exist in lower reaches of tributaries and headwaters due to development, forest management, and grazing practices. Temperatures in the lower Yakima and Wapato Reach have increased to a point that returning fall-run adults must delay river entry and juveniles must migrate from the river earlier. The mainstem Middle Fork, North Fork, West Fork Teanaway River, and Stafford Creek are 303(d) listed for water temperature.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap and sustained low flows to lower Naches and from Union Gap downstream limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Obstructions have reduced the area available to sockeye. Kachess, Keechelus, and Cle Elum dams prevent access to high elevation areas for sockeye.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Sockeye are subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial or total flow/temperature blockages to fish migrations due to diversions exist throughout the subbasin. Wenas Dam prevents access to the upper Wenas Creek and dewaters lower Wenas Creek. Migratory fish cannot access Umtanum Creek upstream of river mile 4.8 due to a gabion structure. Kachess, Keechelus, and Cle Elum dams prevent access to high elevation areas for spring Chinook.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Channel incision has disconnected Toppenish Creek from the floodplain below Simcoe Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat diversity and large woody debris is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes; altered Flow Timing Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Riparian Degradation; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Riparian communities (particularly black cottonwood) in the mainstem Yakima and Naches rivers are degraded due to changes in the hydrograph. Riparian vegetation in Toppenish Creek between Unit II Pump Canal and Star Route 22 has been modified by grazing and irrigated agriculture. Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Avian and fish predation problems exist throughout the subbasin
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Juveniles Elevated sediment loads exist throughout the subbasin due to high road densities, increases in peak flows, bank erosion, and floodplain loss.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Elevated summer temperatures exist in lower reaches of tributaries and headwaters due to development, forest management, and grazing practices. Temperatures in the lower Yakima and Wapato Reach have increased to a point that returning fall-run adults must delay river entry and juveniles must migrate from the river earlier. The mainstem Middle Fork, North Fork, West Fork Teanaway River, and Stafford Creek are 303(d) listed for water temperature.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap and sustained low flows to lower Naches and from Union Gap downstream limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial or total flow/temperature blockages to fish migrations due to diversions exist throughout the subbasin. Wenas Dam prevents access to the upper Wenas Creek and dewaters lower Wenas Creek. Migratory fish cannot access Umtanum Creek upstream of river mile 4.8 due to a gabion structure. Kachess, Keechelus, and Cle Elum dams prevent access to high elevation areas for steelhead.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Channel incision has disconnected Toppenish Creek from the floodplain below Simcoe Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Summer/early-fall habitat availability is low or eliminated by low flow and high temperature in the lower Yakima River and Wapato Reach. Lack of habitat diversity and large woody debris is problematic throughout the subbasin. Excessive growth of in-channel aquatic vegetation in the lower/middle Yakima is problematic.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes; altered Flow Timing Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Riparian Degradation; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Riparian communities (particularly black cottonwood) in the mainstem Yakima and Naches rivers are degraded due to changes in the hydrograph. Riparian vegetation in Toppenish Creek between Unit II Pump Canal and Star Route 22 has been modified by grazing and irrigated agriculture. Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Avian and fish predation problems exist throughout the subbasin
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Juveniles Elevated sediment loads exist throughout the subbasin due to high road densities, increases in peak flows, bank erosion, and floodplain loss.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Elevated summer temperatures exist in lower reaches of tributaries and headwaters due to development, forest management, and grazing practices. Temperatures in the lower Yakima and Wapato Reach have increased to a point that returning fall-run adults must delay river entry and juveniles must migrate from the river earlier. The mainstem Middle Fork, North Fork, West Fork Teanaway River, and Stafford Creek are 303(d) listed for water temperature.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap and sustained low flows to lower Naches and from Union Gap downstream limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.