Limiting Factors



Blue Mountain Province

Asotin Subbasin 391, 393

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Seasonal water temperatures and poor habitat conditions exclude bull trout use of the mainstem Asotin Creek below the confluence of Charley Creek
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Confinement by roads and dikes, and resulting loss of riparian function affect most life stages.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation All Channel instability impacts egg incubation throughout the subbasin. Confinement by roads and dikes, and resulting loss of riparian function affect most life stages.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity and quantity throughout the subbasin are primary factors limiting bull trout.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Riparian Degradation All Water temperature may be the most limiting factor for bull trout in the subbasin.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Confinement by roads and dikes, and resulting loss of riparian function affect most life stages.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation All Channel instability impacts egg incubation throughout the subbasin. Confinement by roads and dikes, and resulting loss of riparian function affect most life stages.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity and quantity throughout the subbasin are the primary factors limiting spring Chinook.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are primarily subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization All Sediment load impacts egg incubation, and high temperatures limit production.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Confinement by roads and dikes, and resulting loss of riparian function affect most life stages.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles Channel instability impacts egg incubation throughout the subbasin. Confinement by roads and dikes, and resulting loss of riparian function affect most life stages.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Lack of habitat quantity (pools) and diversity impact steelhead rearing in Hefflefinger and Coombs creeks, as well as most reaches of the South Fork of the North Fork. Habitat diversity and quantity are also the primary limiting factors for the Charley Creek watershed.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Eggs, fry, winter parr Sediment load impacts steelhead egg incubation in the mainstem, George Creek, lower South Fork, Ten Mile Creek, and Lick Creek. High temperatures limit steelhead production in Ten Mile Creek.

Grande Ronde Subbasin 422, 423

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Wallowa Lake Dam and Beaver Creek Dam are barriers to passage.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Extensive wetlands have been eliminated by agriculture, road building, livestock, and removal of beavers.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Past and present forest management practices have decreased riparian function. Bull trout have been affected by loss of shade and instream structure.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Agricultural practices and livestock grazing have widened the stream channel in the Upper Grande Ronde.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Pre-Spawn Adults Increased sedimentation has resulted in the siltation of spawning gravel.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Increased water temperatures in the Upper Grande Ronde have resulted in thermal barriers.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Wallowa Lake Dam and Upper Alder Slope Diversion are significant barriers to adult fish passage.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Extensive wetlands have been eliminated by agriculture, road building, livestock, and removal of beavers.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Agricultural activities have drained and cleared many riparian areas in the Wallowa River watershed. Agriculture has reduced shade and confined the channel in Catherine Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historic splash damming on the Minam River cleared woody debris and simplified the channel. Extensive channelization in the upper Grande Ronde has resulted in loss of both riverine and wetland habitats.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are primarily subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Eggs; Pre-spawn Adults Sediment impacts are widespread throughout the Upper Grande Ronde watershed.
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Eggs Reduced peak flows from operation of Wallowa Lake Dam has increased sediment accumulation below the dam. Temperature and impacts are widespread throughout the Upper Grande Ronde watershed.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Water diversions exacerbate summer low flows in the Wallowa River watershed. Water withdrawls significantly reduce the flow of Catherine Creek from June through September, with one diversion transfering water to the Powder River Subbasin. Diversions also reduce flow in the Upper Grande Ronde.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Wallowa Lake Dam and Upper Alder Slope Diversion are significant barriers to adult fish passage.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Extensive wetlands have been eliminated by agriculture, road building, livestock, and removal of beavers.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Impacts to riparian function from grazing and roads limit steelhead rearing habitat in the Wildcat Creek watershed. Extensive grazing has reduced riparian function in some parts of the Joseph Creek watershed. Agricultural activities have drained and cleared many riparian areas in the Wallowa River watershed. Agriculture has reduced shade and confined the channel in Catherine Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historic splash damming on the Minam River cleared woody debris and simplified the channel. Extensive channelization in the upper Grande Ronde has resulted in loss of both riverine and wetland habitats.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Eggs; Pre-spawn Adults Sedimentation limits steelhead spawning and egg incubation in tributaries of the Lower Grande Ronde. Sedimentation is also significant in the Joseph Creek watershed. Sediment impacts are widespread throughout the Upper Grande Ronde watershed.
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Eggs Reduced peak flows from operation of Wallowa Lake Dam has increased sediment accumulation below the dam. Temperature impacts are widespread throughout the Upper Grande Ronde watershed.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Summer parr Water diversions exacerbate summer low flows in the Wallowa River watershed. Water withdrawals significantly reduce the flow of Catherine Creek from June through September, with one diversion transfering water to the Powder River Subbasin. Diversions also reduce flow in the Upper Grande Ronde.

Imnaha Subbasin 424, 425

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Seasonal barriers such as irrigation diversions in the Big Sheep Creek watershed impede migrations of bull trout. Diversions associated with the Wallowa Valley Improvement Canal have created barriers to migrating bull trout in Big Sheep, Little Sheep, and McCully creeks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Modification through riprapped banks, dredging, and elimination of off-channel refugia has reduced or eliminated rearing habitat.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cultivation, farming, and pasturing have reduced riparian habitat in many tributaries, especially in the Big Sheep Creek watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Channels have attained unsuitable width:depth ratios, which create a shallow and wide system.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Increased sediment is a key attribute limiting bull trout production
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All High water temperature is a key attribute limiting bull trout production
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, adults Reduction of flows by irrigation deiversions limits spawning and incubation in Big Sheep Creek.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Erosion Control; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles In areas modified through riprapped banks, dredging, and elimination of off-channel refugia the diversity of overwintering habitat has been reduced or eliminated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Cultivation, farming, and pasturing have reduced riparian habitat in many tributaries. Poor riparian condition throughout the subbasin limits Chinook productivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Juveniles, Pre-spawn adults Pre-spawning Chinook are impacted by losses of habitat diversity and streambed instability in the lower reaches of the Imnaha.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles High temperatures affect the productivity of Chinook in the Lower Imnaha.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles In areas modified through riprapped banks, dredging, and elimination of off-channel refugia the diversity of overwintering habitat has been reduced or eliminated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Cultivation, farming, and pasturing have reduced riparian habitat in many tributaries. Poor riparian condition throughout the subbasin limits Chinook productivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal All Pre-spawning Chinook are impacted by losses of habitat diversity and streambed instability in the middle and lower reaches of the Imnaha. Insufficient substrate size in the Middle and Upper Imnaha limits Chinook spawning and incubation success.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are primarily subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Eggs, juveniles High temperatures affect the productivity of spring/summer Chinook in the Lower Imnaha. Summer temperatures and sediment loads in Big Sheep Creek impede migration of spring/summer Chinook.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Adults Low summer flows, exacerbated by irrigation diversions, impede migration of spring/summer Chinook into Big Sheep Creek.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles In areas modified through riprapped banks, dredging, and elimination of off-channel refugia the diversity of overwintering habitat has been reduced or eliminated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Cultivation, farming, and pasturing have reduced riparian habitat in many tributaries. Poor riparian condition throughout the subbasin limits steelhead productivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Juveniles Lack of diverse, deep, and cool habitat types in the Big Sheep Creek and Little Sheep Creek watersheds limit steelhead fry colonization and summer rearing.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling;+E64 Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Eggs, juveniles Summer temperatures and sediment loads in Big Sheep Creek limit steelhead.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Forest Management Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All Frequent high flow events in the Big Sheep Creek and Little Sheep Creek watersheds resulting from modification of upland vegetation through timber harvest and fires have changed spawning substrate availability and disrupt steelhead incubation.

Snake Hells Canyon Subbasin 426

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Spawning and rearing habitats in the Snake River have been inundated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Hells Canyon Dam completely blocks fish passage out of the subbasin to the Upper Snake River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road construction has altered the quality, quantity, and connectivity of habitat in tributary watersheds.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Livestock grazing degrades riparian habitats in tributary watersheds. Introduction of exotic plants has reduced riparian function.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Temperatures exceed state standards in the entire reach of the Snake River.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Spawning and rearing habitats in the Snake River have been inundated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Hells Canyon Dam completely blocks fish passage out of the subbasin to the Upper Snake River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road construction has altered the quality, quantity, and connectivity of habitat in tributary watersheds.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian growth along the Snake River is hindered by lack of sediment and therefore lack of substrate. Livestock grazing degrades riparian habitats in tributary watersheds. Introduction of exotic plants has reduced riparian function.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Smallmouth bass prey on juvenile salmonids in the Snake River.
Water Quality Temperature -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Temperatures exceed state standards in the entire reach of the Snake River. Sediment is deficient below Hells Canyon Dam due to trapping of suspended sediment and bedload. Dissolved gas levels below Hells Canyon Dam may impair fish populations
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Hydropower operations at Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams have altered flow regimes. Fall Chinook are susceptible because changes in flow affect spawning timing, spawning location, egg incubation, and out-migration of juveniles.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Spawning and rearing habitats in the Snake River have been inundated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Hells Canyon Dam completely blocks fish passage out of the subbasin to the Upper Snake River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road construction has altered the quality, quantity, and connectivity of habitat in tributary watersheds.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Livestock grazing degrades riparian habitats in tributary watersheds. Introduction of exotic plants has reduced riparian function.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during
Water Quality Temperature -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Temperatures exceed state standards in the entire reach of the Snake River. Sediment is deficient below Hells Canyon Dam due to trapping of suspended sediment and bedload. Dissolved gas levels below Hells Canyon Dam may impair fish populations
REDBAND TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Spawning and rearing habitats in the Snake River have been inundated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road construction has altered the quality, quantity, and connectivity of habitat in tributary watersheds.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Livestock grazing degrades riparian habitats in tributary watersheds. Introduction of exotic plants has reduced riparian function.
Water Quality Temperature -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Temperatures exceed state standards in the entire reach of the Snake River.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Hells Canyon Dam completely blocks fish passage out of the subbasin to the Upper Snake River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Smallmouth bass prey on juvenile salmonids in the Snake River.
Water Quality Temperature -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Temperatures exceed state standards in the entire reach of the Snake River. Sediment is deficient below Hells Canyon Dam due to trapping of suspended sediment and bedload. Dissolved gas levels below Hells Canyon Dam may impair fish populations
SPRING/SUMMER CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Spawning and rearing habitats in the Snake River have been inundated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Hells Canyon Dam completely blocks fish passage out of the subbasin to the Upper Snake River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road construction has altered the quality, quantity, and connectivity of habitat in tributary watersheds.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian growth along the Snake River is hindered by lack of sediment and therefore lack of substrate. Livestock grazing degrades riparian habitats in tributary watersheds. Introduction of exotic plants has reduced riparian function.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring/Summer Chinook are primarily subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Smallmouth bass prey on juvenile salmonids in the Snake River.
Water Quality Temperature -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Temperatures exceed state standards in the entire reach of the Snake River. Sediment is deficient below Hells Canyon Dam due to trapping of suspended sediment and bedload. Dissolved gas levels below Hells Canyon Dam may impair fish populations
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Spawning and rearing habitats in the Snake River have been inundated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Hells Canyon Dam completely blocks fish passage out of the subbasin to the Upper Snake River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road construction has altered the quality, quantity, and connectivity of habitat in tributary watersheds.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian growth along the Snake River is hindered by lack of sediment and therefore lack of substrate. Livestock grazing degrades riparian habitats in tributary watersheds. Introduction of exotic plants has reduced riparian function.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Smallmouth bass prey on juvenile salmonids in the Snake River.
Water Quality Temperature -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Temperatures exceed state standards in the entire reach of the Snake River. Sediment is deficient below Hells Canyon Dam due to trapping of suspended sediment and bedload. Dissolved gas levels below Hells Canyon Dam may impair fish populations
WHITE STURGEON
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Spawning habitats in the Snake River have been inundated.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Hells Canyon Dam completely blocks fish passage out of the subbasin to the Upper Snake River. White sturgeon have been effectively isolated.

Columbia Cascade Province

Columbia Upper Middle Subbasin

RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles Steep, sparsely vegetated shorelines limit rearing habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Introductions of non-native predator fishes as well as an increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are potentially limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention Adult spawners Smoothing of the hydrograph and lack of significant reservoir fluctuations has resulted in an increased amount of fine sediment in the lower portions of the reservoirs thus concentrating anadromous salmonid spawning to the upper reaches of the reservoirs.
Water Quality Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Pollution and Contamination Juveniles Occasionally total dissolved gas levels exceed maximum allowed levels during periods of high run-off. Mean annual phosphate concentrations often exceed levels that could stimulate algal blooms.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Operation of Wanapum, Rock Island, Rocky Reach, Wells, and Chief Joseph dams results in rapid flushing rates and no thermal stratification during the summer. Productivity is limited due to rapid flushing rates, cold temperatures, and lack of shallow water areas. Food that is available in the reservoirs typically provides lower amounts of energy than found in free-flowing areas such as the Hanford Reach.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles Steep, sparsely vegetated shorelines limit rearing habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Introductions of non-native predator fishes as well as an increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are potentially limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention Adult spawners Smoothing of the hydrograph and lack of significant reservoir fluctuations has resulted in an increased amount of fine sediment in the lower portions of the reservoirs thus concentrating anadromous salmonid spawning to the upper reaches of the reservoirs.
Water Quality Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Pollution and Contamination Juveniles Occasionally total dissolved gas levels exceed maximum allowed levels during periods of high run-off. Mean annual phosphate concentrations often exceed levels that could stimulate algal blooms.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Operation of Wanapum, Rock Island, Rocky Reach, Wells, and Chief Joseph dams results in rapid flushing rates and no thermal stratification during the summer. Productivity is limited due to rapid flushing rates, cold temperatures, and lack of shallow water areas. Food that is available in the reservoirs typically provides lower amounts of energy than found in free-flowing areas such as the Hanford Reach.
SUMMER CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Introductions of non-native predator fishes as well as an increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are potentially limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention Adult spawners Smoothing of the hydrograph and lack of significant reservoir fluctuations has resulted in an increased amount of fine sediment in the lower portions of the reservoirs thus concentrating anadromous salmonid spawning to the upper reaches of the reservoirs.
Water Quality Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Pollution and Contamination Juveniles Occasionally total dissolved gas levels exceed maximum allowed levels during periods of high run-off. Mean annual phosphate concentrations often exceed levels that could stimulate algal blooms.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Operation of Wanapum, Rock Island, Rocky Reach, Wells, and Chief Joseph dams results in rapid flushing rates and no thermal stratification during the summer. Productivity is limited due to rapid flushing rates, cold temperatures, and lack of shallow water areas. Food that is available in the reservoirs typically provides lower amounts of energy than found in free-flowing areas such as the Hanford Reach.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Introductions of non-native predator fishes as well as an increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are potentially limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention Adult spawners Smoothing of the hydrograph and lack of significant reservoir fluctuations has resulted in an increased amount of fine sediment in the lower portions of the reservoirs thus concentrating anadromous salmonid spawning to the upper reaches of the reservoirs.
Water Quality Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Pollution and Contamination Juveniles Occasionally total dissolved gas levels exceed maximum allowed levels during periods of high run-off. Mean annual phosphate concentrations often exceed levels that could stimulate algal blooms.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Operation of Wanapum, Rock Island, Rocky Reach, Wells, and Chief Joseph dams results in rapid flushing rates and no thermal stratification during the summer. Productivity is limited due to rapid flushing rates, cold temperatures, and lack of shallow water areas. Food that is available in the reservoirs typically provides lower amounts of energy than found in free-flowing areas such as the Hanford Reach.

Entiat Subbasin 402

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Introduction of brook trout threatens bull trout through competition and hybridization.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Illegal Harvest Adults Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles, adults Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Erosion in upland areas in Fox, McCRee, Brenegan, Preston, and Mud creeks, Crum Canyon and the mainstem Entiat between Fox and Stormy creeks contribute to the percent fines in the lower Entiat. High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Most of the mainstem Entiat has been channelized and flood control measures have been implemented. The connectivity of the floodplain from the mouth of Mad River to Pine Flats Campground (river mile 4) has been reduced by orchards, Ardenvoir, County Road 119, and Forest Service Road 5700.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks. In the lower mainstem Mad River, from the mouth to Pine Flats Campground, there is a loss of riparian connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Low stream channel complexity is the primary limitation to productivity of salmonids in the lower 12.4 miles. Stream sinuosity is low, with few point bars for gravel accumulation. Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence. Large woody debris is lacking throughout the middle section of the Entiat River and Lower Mad River. Lack of overwintering juvenile habitat, especially in the Lower Mad River, limits productivity and distribution.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest; Illegal Harvest Adults Coho are subject to ocean and fresh water harvest. Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish Juveniles Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Complete or partial barriers exist on Brenegan, Preston, Stormy, Mud, and Tillicum creeks. Eighteen fish passage barriers exist from Potato Moraine to Entiat Flats.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish Juveniles Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on juvenile lamprey
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Complete or partial barriers exist on Brenegan, Preston, Stormy, Mud, and Tillicum creeks. Eighteen fish passage barriers exist from Potato Moraine to Entiate Flats.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Most of the mainstem Entiat has been channelized and flood control measures have been implemented. The connectivity of the floodplain from the mouth of Mad River to Pine Flats Campground (river mile 4) has been reduced by orchards, Ardenvoir, County Road 119, and Forest Service Road 5700.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks. In the lower mainstem Mad River, from the mouth to Pine Flats Campground, there is a loss of riparian connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Low stream channel complexity is the primary limitation to productivity of salmonids in the lower 12.4 miles. Stream sinuosity is low, with few point bars for gravel accumulation. Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence. Large woody debris is lacking throughout the middle section of the Entiat River and Lower Mad River. Lack of overwintering juvenile habitat, especially in the Lower Mad River, limits productivity and distribution.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest; Illegal Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest. Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids. Avian and pinniped predation are concerns.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Exceedence of state water quality standards for temperature, from July-September, in the Lower Entiat River. Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic. Cold winter water temperatures affect egg incubation survival, time of emergence, and winter rearing habitat in the lower Entiat.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Complete or partial barriers exist on Brenegan, Preston, Stormy, Mud, and Tillicum creeks. Eighteen fish passage barriers exist from Potato Moraine to Entiate Flats.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Most of the mainstem Entiat has been channelized and flood control measures have been implemented. The connectivity of the floodplain from the mouth of Mad River to Pine Flats Campground (river mile 4) has been reduced by orchards, Ardenvoir, County Road 119, and Forest Service Road 5700.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks. In the lower mainstem Mad River, from the mouth to Pine Flats Campground, there is a loss of riparian connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Low stream channel complexity is the primary limitation to productivity of salmonids in the lower 12.4 miles. Stream sinuosity is low, with few point bars for gravel accumulation. Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence. Large woody debris is lacking throughout the middle section of the Entiat River and Lower Mad River. Lack of overwintering juvenile habitat, especially in the Lower Mad River, limits productivity and distribution.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest; Illegal Harvest Adults Steelhead are subject to fresh water harvest. Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles Avian and pinniped predation are concerns. Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Sediment and cobble embeddedness problematic in the Lower Entiat River. Erosion in upland areas in Fox, McCRee, Brenegan, Preston, and Mud creeks, Crum Canyon and the mainstem Entiat between Fox and Stormy creeks contribute to the percent fines in the lower Entiat. High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Exceedence of state water quality standards for temperature, from July-September, in the Lower Entiat River. Cold winter water temperatures affect egg incubation survival, time of emergence, and winter rearing habitat in the lower Entiat. Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
SUMMER/FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Most of the mainstem Entiat has been channelized and flood control measures have been implemented. The connectivity of the floodplain from the mouth of Mad River to Pine Flats Campground (river mile 4) has been reduced by orchards, Ardenvoir, County Road 119, and Forest Service Road 5700.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks. In the lower mainstem Mad River, from the mouth to Pine Flats Campground, there is a loss of riparian connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Low stream channel complexity is the primary limitation to productivity of salmonids in the lower 12.4 miles. Stream sinuosity is low, with few point bars for gravel accumulation. Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence. Large woody debris is lacking throughout the middle section of the Entiat River and Lower Mad River. Lack of overwintering juvenile habitat, especially in the Lower Mad River, limits productivity and distribution.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest; Illegal Harvest Adults Steelhead are subject to fresh water harvest. Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass eight mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles Avian and pinniped predation are concerns. Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Sediment and cobble embeddedness problematic in the Lower Entiat River. Erosion in upland areas in Fox, McCRee, Brenegan, Preston, and Mud creeks, Crum Canyon and the mainstem Entiat between Fox and Stormy creeks contribute to the percent fines in the lower Entiat. High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Exceedence of state water quality standards for temperature, from July-September, in the Lower Entiat River. Cold winter water temperatures affect egg incubation survival, time of emergence, and winter rearing habitat in the lower Entiat. Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species. Irrigation may exacerbate poor conditions in the Lower Entiat. In-stream flow is a concern in the Lower Entiat from river mile 0-10. The road from Pine Flat Campground (Mad River) to the mouth constricts the channel increasing the flow velocities.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Instream-habitat diversity is low with few pools, glides, pocket waters, or large woody debris. Loss of large pools below Mad River confluence.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Road densities are high and in close proximity to streams. Past logging and road building affects tributary riparian condition in Preston and Brennegan creeks.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Illegal Harvest Adults Poaching levels continue to be substantial.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles, adults Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Erosion in upland areas in Fox, McCRee, Brenegan, Preston, and Mud creeks, Crum Canyon and the mainstem Entiat between Fox and Stormy creeks contribute to the percent fines in the lower Entiat. High road density, a high number of road miles in the riparian corridor, and road maintenance practices contribute to increased sediment delivery.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Exceedence of state water quality standards for temperature, from July-September, in the Lower Entiat River. Cold winter water temperatures affect egg incubation survival, time of emergence, and winter rearing habitat in the lower Entiat. Winter low temperatures and formation of anchor ice in the lower mainstem Entiat and Mad rivers is problematic
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Low flows are a natural occurrence within the subbasin limiting production of some salmonid species.

Lake Chelan Subbasin 403

Bull Trout
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Altered Primary Productivity -- Water Management Water: Nutrient Alteration All Levels of nitrates, chlorophyll a, zooplankton, and benthic organisms are low, especially in the Lucerne Basin. The productivity of the lake is also affected by elevated bacterial levels and pesticide residues.
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Competition between native fish species and introduced game fish has reduced or eliminated native fish populations.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Sediment deposits at the mouths of some tributaries have created barriers to spawning areas. Fish, Safety, Prince, Gold, Grade, Mitchell, and Rail Road creeks contain sediment barriers that block passage of during upstream spawning migrations.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Large woody debris has been removed limiting cover and reducing in-stream complexity. Tributaries to Lake Chelan (from Manson to Stehekin) lack appropriately sized gravel for trout spawning as well as large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Vegetation is limited along the Lake Chelan shoreline due to the steep-sided configuration of the drainage, the thin, rocky soils, and heavy wave action. Riparian and wetland habitat have been removed or filled near the mouth of the Stehekin River. Grazing and lake level fluctuations have reduced riparian habitat. Large trees, snags, and woody debris are limited. From Mitchell Creek down the lake, large trees and mid– to low-level shrubs and forbs/grasses are limited in numbers. Most tributaries (Grade, Mitchell, Box, Big, Bear, Prince, and Fish) have narrow, steep-walled drainages, deeply-incised channels, narrow bands of riparian vegetation alongside the streams, and a lack of large woody debris.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Populations are subject to high levels of legal harvest.
Water Quality Oxygen; pH; -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; All First Creek and the lower Chelan River (Chelan Falls and Hatchery) are on the EPA’s 303d list for impaired water quality due to dissolved oxygen. Mitchell Creek was listed for irregularities in pH.
KOKANEE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Altered Primary Productivity -- Water Management Water: Nutrient Alteration All Levels of nitrates, chlorophyll a, zooplankton, and benthic organisms are low, especially in the Lucerne Basin. The productivity of the lake is also affected by elevated bacterial levels and pesticide residues.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Competition between native fish species and introduced game fish has reduced or eliminated native fish populations.
Water Quality Oxygen; pH; -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; All First Creek and the lower Chelan River (Chelan Falls and Hatchery) are on the EPA’s 303d list for impaired water quality due to dissolved oxygen. Mitchell Creek was listed for irregularities in pH.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Altered Primary Productivity -- Water Management Water: Nutrient Alteration All Levels of nitrates, chlorophyll a, zooplankton, and benthic organisms are low, especially in the Lucerne Basin. The productivity of the lake is also affected by elevated bacterial levels and pesticide residues.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Sediment deposits at the mouths of some tributaries have created barriers to spawning areas. Fish, Safety, Prince, Gold, Grade, Mitchell, and Rail Road creeks contain sediment barriers that block passage of during upstream spawning migrations.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Large woody debris has been removed limiting cover and reducing in-stream complexity. Tributaries to Lake Chelan (from Manson to Stehekin) lack appropriately sized gravel for trout spawning as well as large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Vegetation is limited along the Lake Chelan shoreline due to the steep-sided configuration of the drainage, the thin, rocky soils, and heavy wave action. Riparian and wetland habitat have been removed or filled near the mouth of the Stehekin River. Grazing and lake level fluctuations have reduced riparian habitat. Large trees, snags, and woody debris are limited. From Mitchell Creek down the lake, large trees and mid– to low-level shrubs and forbs/grasses are limited in numbers. Most tributaries (Grade, Mitchell, Box, Big, Bear, Prince, and Fish) have narrow, steep-walled drainages, deeply-incised channels, narrow bands of riparian vegetation alongside the streams, and a lack of large woody debris.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Populations are subject to high levels of legal harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Competition between native fish species and introduced game fish has reduced or eliminated native fish populations.
Water Quality Oxygen; pH; -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; All First Creek and the lower Chelan River (Chelan Falls and Hatchery) are on the EPA’s 303d list for impaired water quality due to dissolved oxygen. Mitchell Creek was listed for irregularities in pH.

Methow Subbasin 402, 404

Bull Trout
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Introduction of brook trout threatens bull trout through competition and hybridization.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Two passage barriers (culverts) exist in the lower 3.5 miles of the Black Canyon/Squaw Creek. Methow Valley Irrigation District canal diversion and culverts are impediments in the Lower Twisp. Flow diversions are present in the Lower Chewuch River as well as culverts in Cub and Little Boulder creeks (Lower Chewuch River). A road confinement velocity barrier exists in Eightmile Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris exists throughout the subbasin as well as high embeddedness in spawning habitat. There has been a loss of quality pools and large woody debris in Little Boulder Creek and the gorge in Goat Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Loss of riparian vegetation is prevalent throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Increased sediment load and high percentage of fines exists in the depositional areas. Increased sediment load below Buttermilk Creek (Lower Twisp) is problematic.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity; Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and increased flashy flows exist due to fires in the headwaters. Low flows persist due to natural losing at river mile 0-4.3 on Wolf Creek.
Coho
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Loss of connection to the floodplain due to roads and riprap in the first reach of Early Winters Creek and Lost River. High road densities exist in Little Bridge, Poorman, and Buttermilk creeks. Loss of connection to the floodplain in the lower 800 feet of Wolf Creek and the loss of riparian vegetation in the lower mile of Goat Creek/Little Boulder limit productivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Loss of riparian vegetation is prevalent throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles Lack of large woody debris exists throughout the subbasin as well as high embeddedness in spawning habitat. There has been a loss of quality pools and large woody debris in Little Boulder Creek and the gorge in Goat Creek.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to ocean and fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Increased sediment load and high percentage of fines exists in the depositional areas. Increased sediment load below Buttermilk Creek (Lower Twisp) is problematic.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Two passage barriers (culverts) exist in the lower 3.5 miles of the Black Canyon/Squaw Creek. Methow Valley Irrigation District canal diversion and culverts are impediments in the Lower Twisp. Flow diversions are present in the Lower Chewuch River as well as culverts in Cub and Little Boulder creeks (Lower Chewuch River). A road confinement velocity barrier exists in Eightmile Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Loss of connection to the floodplain due to roads and riprap in the first reach of Early Winters Creek and Lost River. High road densities exist in Little Bridge, Poorman, and Buttermilk creeks. Loss of connection to the floodplain in the lower 800 feet of Wolf Creek and the loss of riparian vegetation in the lower mile of Goat Creek/Little Boulder limit productivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Loss of riparian vegetation is prevalent throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles Lack of large woody debris exists throughout the subbasin as well as high embeddedness in spawning habitat. There has been a loss of quality pools and large woody debris in Little Boulder Creek and the gorge in Goat Creek.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles Avian and pinniped predation are concerns. Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Juveniles Increased sediment load and high percentage of fines exists in the depositional areas. Water temperatures limit spring Chinook spawning and incubation from river mile 0-4 in the Lower Twisp. Increased sediment load below Buttermilk Creek (Lower Twisp) is problematic.
Summer Chinook
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Two passage barriers (culverts) exist in the lower 3.5 miles of the Black Canyon/Squaw Creek. Methow Valley Irrigation District canal diversion and culverts are impediments in the Lower Twisp. Flow diversions are present in the Lower Chewuch River as well as culverts in Cub and Little Boulder creeks (Lower Chewuch River). A road confinement velocity barrier exists in Eightmile Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Loss of connection to the floodplain due to roads and riprap in the first reach of Early Winters Creek and Lost River. High road densities exist in Little Bridge, Poorman, and Buttermilk creeks. Loss of connection to the floodplain in the lower 800 feet of Wolf Creek and the loss of riparian vegetation in the lower mile of Goat Creek/Little Boulder limit productivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Loss of riparian vegetation is prevalent throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles Lack of large woody debris exists throughout the subbasin as well as high embeddedness in spawning habitat. There has been a loss of quality pools and large woody debris in Little Boulder Creek and the gorge in Goat Creek.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles Avian and pinniped predation are concerns. Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Juveniles Increased sediment load and high percentage of fines exists in the depositional areas. Water temperatures limit spring Chinook spawning and incubation from river mile 0-4 in the Lower Twisp. Increased sediment load below Buttermilk Creek (Lower Twisp) is problematic.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Two passage barriers (culverts) exist in the lower 3.5 miles of the Black Canyon/Squaw Creek. Methow Valley Irrigation District canal diversion and culverts are impediments in the Lower Twisp. Flow diversions are present in the Lower Chewuch River as well as culverts in Cub and Little Boulder creeks (Lower Chewuch River). A road confinement velocity barrier exists in Eightmile Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Decreased Water Quantity; Morphological Changes Freshwater - Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Loss of connection to the floodplain due to roads and riprap in the first reach of Early Winters Creek and Lost River. High road densities exist in Little Bridge, Poorman, and Buttermilk creeks. Loss of connection to the floodplain in the lower 800 feet of Wolf Creek and the loss of riparian vegetation in the lower mile of Goat Creek/Little Boulder limit productivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Loss of riparian vegetation is prevalent throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles Lack of large woody debris exists throughout the subbasin as well as high embeddedness in spawning habitat. There has been a loss of quality pools and large woody debris in Little Boulder Creek and the gorge in Goat Creek.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles Avian and pinniped predation are concerns. Walleye and smallmouth bass prey on salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Juveniles Increased sediment load and high percentage of fines exists in the depositional areas. Water temperatures limit spring Chinook spawning and incubation from river mile 0-4 in the Lower Twisp. Increased sediment load below Buttermilk Creek (Lower Twisp) is problematic.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Two passage barriers (culverts) exist in the lower 3.5 miles of the Black Canyon/Squaw Creek. Methow Valley Irrigation District canal diversion and culverts are impediments in the Lower Twisp. Flow diversions are present in the Lower Chewuch River as well as culverts in Cub and Little Boulder creeks (Lower Chewuch River). A road confinement velocity barrier exists in Eightmile Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris exists throughout the subbasin as well as high embeddedness in spawning habitat. There has been a loss of quality pools and large woody debris in Little Boulder Creek and the gorge in Goat Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Loss of riparian vegetation is prevalent throughout the subbasin.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Increased sediment load and high percentage of fines exists in the depositional areas. Increased sediment load below Buttermilk Creek (Lower Twisp) is problematic.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity; Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and increased flashy flows exist due to fires in the headwaters. Low flows persist due to natural losing at river mile 0-4.3 on Wolf Creek.

Okanogan Subbasin 402, 405

Bull Trout
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Introduction of brook trout threatens bull trout through competition and hybridization
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Lack of flow functions as a barrier in streams throughout the subbasin limiting immigration and emigration.
RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Lack of flow functions as a barrier in streams throughout the subbasin limiting immigration and emigration.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Summer Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Irrigation diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of habitat diversity, lack of prespawn holding areas, and large woody debris.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Cattle grazing threatens riparian function and groundwater inputs
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass nine mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces; Sediment: Bank Destabilization; All Channel modifications have led to increased lateral erosion that creates large areas of sand and silt substrate. High levels of sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; Turbidity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All High temperature, low dissolved oxygen, and sedimentation create problems throughout the subbasin.

Wenatchee Subbasin 406, 407

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Competition with brook trout limits bull trout productivity in the upper watersheds.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Predation by brook trout limits bull trout productivity in the upper watersheds.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Low flows are exacerbated by surface water diversions and ground water withdrawals. The Mission, Peshastin, Chumstick, Icicle creeks and Lower Wenatchee River, are 303d listed for low in-stream flows. Low flows and associated high in-stream temperatures prevent or impeded access to spawning grounds and reduce rearing habitat.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to ocean and fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles; adults Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Low flows are exacerbated by surface water diversions and ground water withdrawals. The Mission, Peshastin, Chumstick, Icicle creeks and Lower Wenatchee River, are 303d listed for low in-stream flows. Low flows and associated high in-stream temperatures prevent or impeded access to spawning grounds and reduce rearing habitat.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
SUMMER CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Summer Chinook are subject to fresh water harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass seven mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Competition; Pathogens -- Artificial Propagation Hatchery Fish Production; Disease Amplification and Transfer Juveniles Competition, genetic introgression, and disease transmission from hatchery introductions may reduce productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian; Predators: Marine Mammal Juveniles An increase in populations of indigenous predator fish species, and the immigration of diving birds are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids. Non-native predator fishes are limiting survival of juvenile salmonids.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Diversion dams and culverts create fish passage barriers throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris is a problem throughout the subbasin due to land development, roads, and railroad. Lack of high quality cover, refugia, and diverse habitat types along the stream margin also limit productivity. In-channel conditions have been altered by channel straightening, channelization, and simplification.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian habitat, channel sinuosity, floodplain function, and off-channel habitat have been lost or degraded. Canopy loss exits on harvested upland habitat.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen; pH -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The Lower Wenatchee River is on the WDOE 303d list for temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chiwaukum and Peshastin creeks are also on the 303d list for temperature exceedences. Mission Creek is listed for low dissolved oxygen, high fecal coliform, and pesticides. Chumstick Creek is included on the list for dissolved oxygen, fecal coliform, and pH exceedences. The Little Wenatchee River is listed for temperature exceedence.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Low flows are exacerbated by surface water diversions and ground water withdrawals. The Mission, Peshastin, Chumstick, Icicle creeks and Lower Wenatchee River, are 303d listed for low in-stream flows. Low flows and associated high in-stream temperatures prevent or impeded access to spawning grounds and reduce rearing habitat.

Columbia Estuary Province

Elochoman Subbasin 362

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray chum spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Adults Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation All Reaches in the lower mainstem below Duck Creek have been impacted by decreased habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Increased sediment is a problem in reaches below Duck Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Fry Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Fry Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles, adults Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Many reaches have been impacted by decreased habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Increased sediment is a problem in reaches below Duck Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Juveniles, adults Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Reaches below the West Fork Elochoman have been negatively affected by decreased habitat diversity and channel stability. Lack of LWD has precluded the formation of pools.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, summer parr Reaches below the West Fork Elochoman have been negatively affected by sedimentation caused primarily by road erosion.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Juveniles Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Adults Diking, roads, railroads, and agriculture have diminished floodplain connectivity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adults Reaches between Beaver Creek and the West Fork Elochoman have been degraded by decreased habitat diversity and channel stability. Lack of LWD has precluded the formation of pools.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, adults Reaches between Beaver Creek and the West Fork Elochoman have been degraded by sedimentation caused primarily by road erosion..
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Fry Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Fry Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Impervious Surfaces; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Mainstem and tributary reaches between Clear Creek and the North Fork Elochoman are negatively affected by decreased habitat diversity and channel stability. Lack of LWD has precluded the formation of pools.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to lack of LWD.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, fry, summer parr Mainstem and tributary reaches between Clear Creek and the North Fork Elochoman are negatively affected sedimentation caused primarily by road erosion.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Degraded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss Summer parr Entrenchment has altered flows in the mainstem.

Grays Subbasin 362

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray chum spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices Diking Adults Agricultural practices have reduced floodplain function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Agricultural practices have denuded riparian areas in the lower river.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adults Habitat diversity has decreased in the lower river because of artificially confined channels, loss of LWD, and denuded riparian areas.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Riparian Degradation Eggs Increased sediment is a factor in the lower river.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Eggs Increased water temperature is a factor in the lower river.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Fry High peak flows originate from upstream sources.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices Diking Juveniles, adults Agricultural practices have reduced floodplain function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Denuded riparian conditions lead to increased sediment and temperature, and lack of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Many reaches have been impacted by decreased habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Increased sediment is a problem in many reaches.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Denuded riparian conditions lead to increased temperature.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles, adults Peak flows have been exacerbated by land use and roads.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices Diking Juveniles Agricultural practices have reduced floodplain function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Agricultural practices have denuded riparian areas in the lower river.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Habitat diversity has decreased in the lower river because of artificially confined channels, loss of LWD, and denuded riparian areas.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Riparian Degradation Eggs, summer parr Increased sediment is a problem in many reaches.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Eggs, summer parr Increased water temperature is a factor in the lower river.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles High peak flows originate from upstream sources.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices Diking Adults Agricultural practices have reduced floodplain function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Adults Agricultural practices have denuded riparian areas in the lower river.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adults Habitat diversity has decreased in the lower river because of artificially confined channels, loss of LWD, and denuded riparian areas.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Riparian Degradation Eggs, adults Increased sediment is a problem in many reaches.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Eggs, adults Increased water temperature is a factor in the lower river.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Fry High peak flows originate from upstream sources.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adults Large numbers of stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation Juveniles Key habitat has been impacted by sedimentation and loss of LWD.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Decreased channel stability is caused by the poor condition of riparian forests.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sedimet: Upland Disturbance; Riparian Degradation All Key habitat has been impacted by sedimentation. Upper subbasin reaches suffer from increased sediment originating from timber harvest, roads, and naturally unstable soils.
Water Quantity Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Summer parr High road densities in the South Fork watershed exacerbate peak flows.

Columbia Gorge Province

Big White Salmon Subbasin 376, 377

COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Passage Impediments Juveniles, adults Construction and operation of Condit Dam prevents access to upstream areas by anadromous fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Retention, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adult spawners Lack of recruitment of gravel below Condit Dam limits spawning. Wood removal has decreased critical habitat for juvenile fish rearing.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Decreased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention All Condit Dam impairs sediment transportation.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All The natural hydrologic regime has been altered by Condit Dam.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, adult spawners Lack of recruitment of gravel below Condit Dam limits spawning. Wood removal has decreased critical habitat for juvenile fish rearing.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Decreased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization, Riparian Degradation All Increased sediment loads have decreased fall Chinook productivity below Condit Dam.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All The natural hydrologic regime has been altered by Condit Dam. Low minimum flows and increases in peak flows have decreased fall Chinook productivity. Power peaking causes diel flow variation, which has led to dewatering, stranding, and an increase in bioenergetics losses due to movements associated with daily flow changes.
RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Past timber harvest, road building, agriculture, and grazing have decreased instream habitat complexity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Past timber harvest, road building, agriculture, and grazing have degraded riparian habitat and function, and limited LWD recruitment.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Passage Impediments Juveniles, adults Construction and operation of Condit Dam prevents access to upstream areas by anadromous fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Retention, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adult spawners Lack of recruitment of gravel below Condit Dam limits spawning. Wood removal has decreased critical habitat for juvenile fish rearing.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Decreased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention All Condit Dam impairs sediment transportation.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All The natural hydrologic regime has been altered by Condit Dam. Low minimum flows and increases in peak flows have decreased spring Chinook productivity. Power peaking causes diel flow variation, which has led to dewatering, stranding, and an increase in bioenergetics losses due to movements associated with daily flow changes.
STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Passage Impediments Juveniles, adults Construction and operation of Condit Dam prevents access to upstream areas by anadromous fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Retention, Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adult spawners Lack of recruitment of gravel below Condit Dam limits spawning. Wood removal has decreased critical habitat for juvenile fish rearing.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Decreased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Sediment: Retention All Condit Dam impairs sediment transportation.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All The natural hydrologic regime has been altered by Condit Dam. Low minimum flows and increases in peak flows have decreased spring Chinook productivity. Power peaking causes diel flow variation, which has led to dewatering, stranding, and an increase in bioenergetics losses due to movements associated with daily flow changes.

Columbia Gorge Subbasin 378

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults Chum have a low propensity to ascend the fishways at Bonneville Dam. Transportation corridors and/or hatchery weirs block chum access to tributary habitats.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Fry, adult spawners Mainstem spawning and rearing habitat has been lost due to inundation by Bonneville Dam.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs, fry, adult spawners Historic chum spawning, incubation, and rearing areas in low gradient streams and rivers have been lost due to urban, industrial, and agricultural development.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Recruitment of large woody debris to lower reaches of tributaries and nearshore areas of the mainstem has been reduced.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Eggs, fry, adult spawners Sedimentation impacts spawning and rearing habitats used by chum in tributaries and nearshore areas of the mainstem.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Eggs, fry Operations provide for intermittent dewatering of spawning gravels used by chum and changes to seasonal and longer-term recruitment of spawning gravels.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Passage measures developed for salmon do not necessarily provide optimum benefits to lampreys.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Juveniles Contaminants may affect survival and growth of lamprey.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Frequent pool elevation fluctuations impact ability of juvenile lamprey to use nearshore substrates for long periods of time.
WHITE STURGEON
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adult spawners Mainstem spawning habitat has been lost due to inundation by Bonneville Dam.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults White sturgeon are unable to use fish ladders at Columbia River dams.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Sport and commercial harvest limit adult white sturgeon abundance.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Eggs, adults Contaminants may reduce adhesiveness of eggs. Contaminants also may affect survival, growth, and reproductive potential of white sturgeon adults.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Eggs Elevated water temperature affects white sturgeon eggs.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Adult spawners Altered flows create suboptimal spawning conditions for white sturgeon.

Fifteenmile Subbasin 376, 379

COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Culverts in Lower Eightmile and Ramsey creeks function as partial or complete barriers.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Fifteenmile Creek has been extensively channelized and straightened and has subsequently downcut.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Channel stability is a negative factor for egg incubation, fry colonization, rearing, and overwintering in all reaches except headwater areas.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for sediment on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Fifteenmile and Eightmile creeks are listed for temperature 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles, adults Fluctuations in flow levels are exaggerated by irrigation and human-caused changes (e.g., high road densities in rural areas and forest roads).
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Culverts in Lower Eightmile and Ramsey creeks function as partial or complete barriers.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for sediment on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Fifteenmile and Eightmile creeks are listed for temperature 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles, adults Fluctuations in flow levels are exaggerated by irrigation and human-caused changes (e.g., high road densities in rural areas and forest roads).
RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Culverts in Lower Eightmile and Ramsey creeks function as partial or complete barriers.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Fifteenmile Creek has been extensively channelized and straightened and has subsequently downcut.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Channel stability is a negative factor for egg incubation, fry colonization, rearing, and overwintering in all reaches except headwater areas.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for sediment on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Fifteenmile and Eightmile creeks are listed for temperature 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles, adults Fluctuations in flow levels are exaggerated by irrigation and human-caused changes (e.g., high road densities in rural areas and forest roads).
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Fifteenmile Creek has been extensively channelized and straightened and has subsequently downcut.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Channel stability is a negative factor for egg incubation, fry colonization, rearing, and overwintering in all reaches except headwater areas.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for sediment on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list. Priority sites for reducing sedimentation are the lower and upper reaches of Eightmile Creek, the upper reaches of Ramsey Creek, and the lower reaches of Fifteenmile Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Fifteenmile and Eightmile Creeks are listed for temperature on the 2002 Oregon State 303(d) list. Temperature restoration is a high priority in Fifteenmile Creek from Seufert Falls to Ramsey Creek, in Eightmile Creek from the mouth to the Wolf Run Diversion, in Fivemile Creek from the mouth to North Fork, in Ramsey Creek from the mouth to Olsen Diversion, and Dry Creek.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Fluctuations in flow levels are exaggerated by irrigation and human-caused changes (e.g., high road densities in rural areas and forest roads). Low flows affect steelhead summer rearing in the lower reaches of Eightmile and Fivemile creeks, in Fifteenmile Creek from the confluence upstream to Dufur, in Ramsey Creek from the confluence to the Olsen Diversion and in Dry Creek. Peak flows affect steelhead egg incubation, fry colonization, and overwintering in the lower reaches of Dry, Fivemile, Eightmile and Fifteenmile creeks.

Hood Subbasin 380, 381, 368

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish. Clear Branch Dam, and the Eliot and Coe diversions block bull trout.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Clear Branch Dam inundated bull trout spawning habitat.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Increased sediment from roads is a major limiting factor for bull trout.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Timber harvest and roads have increased the flashiness of the system.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Increased sediment from roads is a major limiting factor.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Timber harvest and roads have increased the flashiness of the system.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray coho spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Past riparian harvest, transportation networks, and land-use have modified channels and decreased interactions with the floodplain.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Clear Branch Dam inundated coho spawning habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load impacts coho throughout their distribution.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray fall Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Past riparian harvest, transportation networks, and land-use have modified channels and decreased interactions with the floodplain.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Fry Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load impacts both fall and spring Chinook throughout their distribution.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish and may be a barrier to Pacific lamprey.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles; adults Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Increased sediment from roads is a major limiting factor.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray spring Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load impacts both fall and spring Chinook throughout their distribution.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish. Clear Branch and Neal Creek Diversion dams are barriers to steelhead.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Past riparian harvest, transportation networks, and land-use have modified channels and decreased interactions with the floodplain.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Clear Branch Dam inundated steelhead spawning habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Increased sedimentation from roads and irrigation networks limits egg incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Powerdale Dam impedes upstream and downstream migration of all fish. Clear Branch and Neal Creek Diversion dams are barriers to steelhead.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Unscreened diversions impact juvenile fish in Neal Creek, Tony Creek, Eliot Branch, and Coe Branch.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles Past riparian harvest, transportation networks, and land-use have modified channels and decreased interactions with the floodplain.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Loss of large woody debris recruitment caused by historic timber practices and clearing of streams has reduced habitat diversity.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Clear Branch Dam inundated steelhead spawning habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Increased sedimentation from roads and irrigation networks limits winter steelhead egg incubation in Baldwin, Culvert, Evans, and Tieman creeks. Productivity of winter steelhead in Neal and Lenz creeks is limited by pesticides and herbicides.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Herbicides, Pesticides Pollution Eggs, juveniles Productivity of winter steelhead in Neal and Lenz creeks is limited by pesticides and herbicides.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Water Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management; Migration Impediments Juveniles Eighty percent of the flow has been removed in a three-mile reach below Powerdale Dam. Altered flows due to irrigation (Baldwin, Odell, Tieman, and West Fork Neal creeks), hydropower (Powerdale Dam), and municipal water diversions (upper Dog River) limit productivity of anadromous species.

Klickitat Subbasin 376, 382

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Filling; Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization All Loss of riparian vegetation, modifications of streambanks, channel instability, decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River have altered thermal regimes and affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Side channels have been isolated in Diamond Fork, and the upper mainstem of the Klickitat River. There has been a loss of wetlands in upper Swale Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Fry Floodplain roads, both abandoned and active, have led to channelization and constriction problems.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults A 2,400 ft flume, 2 culverts, and dam in Snyder Creek create a depth/velocity barrier. Poor passage percentage and survival exists at Lyle Falls fish ladder. Access to Dead Canyon is limited due to an undersized road crossing and road bed construction.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Side channels have been isolated in Diamond Fork, and the upper mainstem of the Klickitat River. There has been a loss of wetlands in upper Swale Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows
STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
-- Artificial Propogation Juveniles Non-native Skamania stock steelhead may affect fish from the Klickitat population.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults A 2,400 ft flume, 2 culverts, and dam in Snyder Creek create a depth/velocity barrier. Poor passage percentage and survival exists at Lyle Falls fish ladder. Access to Dead Canyon is limited due to an undersized road crossing and road bed construction.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Side channels have been isolated in Diamond Fork, and the upper mainstem of the Klickitat River. There has been a loss of wetlands in upper Swale Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Native vegetation has been lost in floodplain areas of the White Creek watershed, mainstem Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Decreased channel sinuosity in meadows in White Creek watershed and the mainstem of the Klickitat River has affected spawn timing, incubation, and rearing. Juvenile rearing is affected by lack of large woody debris in the upper and middle portions of the Klickitat Subbasin, including White Creek watershed, Trout Creek watershed, the upper and middle sections of the mainstem of the Klickitat River, and lower portions of the Little Klickitat River
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, adult spawners Increased percentages of fine sediment throughout the entire subbasin impact spawning and incubation.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults Loss of wetland structure and groundwater withdrawals lower base flows

Little White Salmon Subbasin 383

Chum
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry Current large woody debris levels are low throughout the basin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Fry The greatest impairments relative to sediment are located in the lower two watersheds and in the Lava Creek drainage.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Urbanization; Forest Management Migration Impediments Adults Two dams (one at the Little White Salmon Hatchery and the other on Lost Creek (north) adjacent to a diversion intake) restrict passage. Fifteen culverts present barriers to fish passage.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Wood/Structure Removal Fry Current large woody debris levels are low throughout the basin especially in Lost Creek (north) and Goose Lake Creek.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Juveniles Little White Salmon headwaters, mid-Little White Salmon/Cabbage Creek, mid-Little White Salmon/Berry Creek and the two lowermost mainstem watersheds are considered moderately impaired relative to conditions that influence sediment supply. The greatest impairments relative to sediment are located in the lower two watersheds and in the Lava Creek drainage.
Water Quality Temperature; Turbidity -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Adults High temperatures in Drano Lake may affect passage. Exceedance of the temperature standard has occurred in Dry Creek, the mainstem above 201 Road, the mainstem above Lusk Creek, the mainstem at Berry Creek, and the mainstem above Moss Creek. Turbidity levels are high throughout the mainstem and Lusk Creek and are attributed to bank cutting on the mainstem and timber harvest in the upper basin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Flow diversion on Lost Creek directs flow into the Coyote Ditch reducing flow in Lower Lost Creek by one-third during low flow periods.

Wind Subbasin 376, 383

Chum
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All The Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juvenile, adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juvenile, adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All The Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Fry, summer parr Bank stability concerns exist for Compass, Upper Trout, and Layout creeks as well as for upper, middle, and lower Wind basins. The middle Wind River (RM 12-19) experiences rapid channel migration and avulsions during high flow events. The mainstem Wind River between RM 12 and 19 contains rural residential and agricultural development that has resulted in cleared riparian forests.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, summer parr Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude. The Wind headwaters and subwatersheds for Ninemile, Compass/Crater, Upper Trout, Upper Panther, and Layout creeks rank the highest for increased peak flows. Dry and Martha creeks as well as portions of the Trout Creek Basin go subsurface in late summer. Irrigation occurs in Trout Creek.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Fry, summer parr Bank stability concerns exist for Compass, Upper Trout, and Layout creeks as well as for upper, middle, and lower Wind basins. The middle Wind River (RM 12-19) experiences rapid channel migration and avulsions during high flow events. The mainstem Wind River between RM 12 and 19 contains rural residential and agricultural development that has resulted in cleared riparian forests.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, summer parr Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude. The Wind headwaters and subwatersheds for Ninemile, Compass/Crater, Upper Trout, Upper Panther, and Layout creeks rank the highest for increased peak flows. Dry and Martha creeks as well as portions of the Trout Creek Basin go subsurface in late summer. Irrigation occurs in Trout Creek.

Columbia Plateau Province

Columbia Lower Middle Subbasin

COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three or four mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Juvenile salmonids are being harvested by birds and fish predators at rates higher than prior to hydro-development.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Juveniles Contaminant inputs from upstream land-use activities are often trapped in the reservoirs behind the dams.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Juveniles High temperatures during upstream migration of salmonids limit productivity.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Peak flows and frequent water level fluctuations have a deleterious and sometimes fatal effect on juvenile salmoinds. Fluctuations in flows can delay adult salmonid migrations.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three or four mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Juvenile salmonids are being harvested by birds and fish predators at rates higher than prior to hydro-development.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Juveniles Contaminant inputs from upstream land-use activities are often trapped in the reservoirs behind the dams.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Juveniles High temperatures during upstream migration of salmonids limit productivity.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Peak flows and frequent water level fluctuations have a deleterious and sometimes fatal effect on juvenile salmoinds. Fluctuations in flows can delay adult salmonid migrations.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Rock Creek Road and other structures in the Rock Creek watershed have altered the floodplain and confined the creek and tributaries.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Lack of habitat diversity (pools with cover) and lack of large woody debris in Rock Creek and its tributaries limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three or four mainstem dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Juvenile salmonids are being harvested by birds and fish predators at rates higher than prior to hydro-development.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Juveniles Contaminant inputs from upstream land-use activities are often trapped in the reservoirs behind the dams. Fluctuations in toxics have reduced native aquatic vegetation and fauna in lower sections of Rock Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Juveniles High temperatures during upstream migration of salmonids limit productivity. In Rock Creek, greater summer maxima and winter minima temperatures affect fish life histories. Fluctuations in water quality parameters (i.e., temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients) have reduced native aquatic vegetation and fauna in lower sections of Rock Creek.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Peak flows and frequent water level fluctuations have a deleterious and sometimes fatal effect on juvenile salmoinds. Fluctuations in flows can delay adult salmonid migrations.
WHITE STURGEON
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults White sturgeon are unable to use existing fish ladders
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Adult spawners Mainstem spawning habitat has been lost due to inundation by mainstem dams.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Sport and commercial harvest limit adult white sturgeon abundance.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Operation of the hydro-facilities has disrupted the historical migration patterns of white sturgeon and resulted in fragmentation of habitat and populations.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Eggs, adults Sedimentation/contaminants may reduce adhesiveness of eggs. Contaminants also may affect survival, growth, and reproductive potential of white sturgeon adults.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Eggs Elevated water temperature affects white sturgeon eggs.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Lack of multi-day uniformality in flow, turbulence, and turbidity result in white sturgeon year-class failures.

Crab Subbasin 386

BLUEGILL
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
KOKANEE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Channel confinement limits in-stream habitat diversity and complexity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation by or Competition with Non-Native Species -- Species Management; Fishery Management Species Introduction; Predators: Fish Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Lack of spawning habitat exists due to sedimentation.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
LARGEMOUTH BASS
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
RAINBOW TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Migration Impediments Adults Barriers limit trout production throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation All Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement and invasive plant species contribute to poor riparian conditions.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Channel confinement limits in-stream habitat diversity and complexity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Lack of spawning habitat exists due to sedimentation.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All Flows have increased in parts of the subbasin due to the management of croplands, whereas elsewhere flows are intermittent. Lack of habitat connectivity due to intermittent surface flows exists throughout the subbasin.
SMALLMOUTH BASS
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement and invasive plant species contribute to poor riparian conditions.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Channel confinement limits in-stream habitat diversity and complexity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass five dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation by or Competition with Non-Native Species -- Species Management; Fishery Management Species Introduction; Predators: Fish Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adults Lack of spawning habitat exists due to sedimentation.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Summer parr, adult spawners Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Summer parr, adult spawners Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All Flows have increased in parts of the subbasin due to the management of croplands, whereas elsewhere flows are intermittent. Lack of habitat connectivity due to intermittent surface flows exists throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER/FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat connectivity and channel confinement and invasive plant species contribute to poor riparian conditions.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Channel confinement limits in-stream habitat diversity and complexity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass five dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation by or Competition with Non-Native Species -- Species Management; Fishery Management Species Introduction; Predators: Fish Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adults Lack of spawning habitat exists due to sedimentation.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals Summer parr, adult spawners Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration Summer parr, adult spawners Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management All Flows have increased in parts of the subbasin due to the management of croplands, whereas elsewhere flows are intermittent. Lack of habitat connectivity due to intermittent surface flows exists throughout the subbasin.
WALLEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.
YELLOW PERCH
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Avian Juveniles Artificial habitat (islands for nesting Caspian terns) has resulted in high levels of predation..
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Sediment: Bank Destabilization Adult spawners Sedimentation from agricultural run-off is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Chemicals from agricultural run-off are problematic throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Elevated summer water temperatures and low dissolved oxygen levels are problematic throughout the subbasin.

Deschutes Subbasin 376, 387, 388

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Forest Management; Urbanization; Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has fragmemted bull trout populations. Passage barriers are present on Link and Spring creeks in the Metolius River watershed.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation by or Competition with Non-Native Species -- Species Management; Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Brook trout are a major threat to bull trout in the Warm Springs River due to competition for limited rearing habitat. Brook and brown trout may be limiting for some bull trout populations in the Metolius River watershed due to their potential for interaction.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) All Sedimentation from forest practices, catastrophic fire and extensive road system impacts stream substrate quality.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray fall Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Floodplains are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian corridors are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Large wood is generally lacking throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing.
REDBAND TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has fragmemted redband trout populations.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation All Degraded riparian vegetation reduces bank stability in small tributaries of the lower Deschutes River. Riparian corridors are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Agriculture Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation All Water temperatures in Buck Hollow, Willow, Bakeoven, Salt, Robin and Lake creeks exceed state water quality criteria for salmonid production. Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Trout movement is generally blocked by intermittent flow or subsurface flow. Low winter flows from Wickiup Dam to Bend limit fish productivity because large woody debris and spawning gravel along the stream margin become unavailable. Fish also become stranded in pools and side channels. Summer flow is very low from Bend to Big Falls because of irrigation diversions. Low summer flows also restrict fish populations in tributaries such as Trout Creek. Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing in Whychus Creek.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Floodplains are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian corridors are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Large wood is generally lacking throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of out-of-basin stray Summer Steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Floodplains are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian corridors are generally degraded throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Large wood is generally lacking throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Juveniles and adults must pass two mainstem dams during migration. The lack of fish passage at the Pelton Round Butte complex has extirpated upstream anadromous populations.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Agriculture Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles High summer water temperatures in tributaries utilized by summer steelhead result from low flow and grazing pressure. Water temperatures in Buck Hollow, Willow, Bakeoven, Salt, Robin and Lake creeks exceed state water quality criteria for salmonid production. Water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels do not meet state criteria immediately downstream from the Pelton Round Butte complex.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Eggs, juveniles Low summer flows restrict fish populations in tributaries such as Trout Creek. Seasonal low flows limit adult migration and juvenile rearing.

John Day Subbasin 376, 389, 390

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Many locations in the John Day River and its tributaries are seasonally dammed (push-up dams) for irrigation.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Pool habitat has been lost, and large woody debris is minimal..
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal All Mining practices have degraded water quality.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Filling; Riparian Degradation All Water temperatures have increased from destruction of cold water springs.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties.
REDBAND TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Pool habitat has been lost, and large woody debris is minimal..
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal All Mining practices have degraded water quality.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Filling; Riparian Degradation All Water temperatures have increased from destruction of cold water springs.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Floodplains in the lower John Day River have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian areas in the lower John Day River have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors. Levels of large woody debris are severely reduced in the Middle Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Habitat quantity and diversity are key limiting factors in the Middle Fork, South Fork, North Fork, and Upper John Day watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load is a high priority limiting factor throughout the subbasin, especially in most tributaries of the Lower John Day and North Fork watersheds.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal Eggs, juveniles Leaching of toxic mine waste is a problem in the North Fork watershed.
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature; pH; Oxygen -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Eggs, juveniles Turbidity is very high in Cottonwood Creek after storm events. The Lower John Day and numerous tributaries throughout the subbasin are on the Oregon state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and fecal coliform standards.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties in Lower John Day tributaries.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Out-of-basin stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial passage barriers created by water diversions limit movements of juvenile salmonids in Bridge, Kahler, Muddy, Lower Rock, and Thirtymile creeks (Lower John Day), and in the South Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Juveniles Floodplains in the lower John Day River have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian areas in the lower John Day River have been extensively altered by agriculture, livestock grazing, and transportation corridors. Levels of large woody debris are severely reduced in the Middle Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Juveniles Habitat diversity and large woody debris is lacking in Bridge, Mountain, Rock, Cottonwood, Ferry Canyon, Pine Hollow and Thirtymile creeks. Habitat quantity and diversity are key limiting factors in the Middle Fork, South Fork, North Fork, and Upper John Day watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Eggs, juveniles Sediment load is a high priority limiting factor throughout the subbasin, especially in most tributaries of the Lower John Day and North Fork watersheds.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal Eggs, juveniles Leaching of toxic mine waste is a problem in the North Fork watershed.
Water Quality Turbidity; Temperature; pH; Oxygen -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Eggs, juveniles Turbidity is very high in Cottonwood Creek after storm events. The Lower John Day and numerous tributaries throughout the subbasin are on the Oregon state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and fecal coliform standards.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties in Lower John Day tributaries.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Pool habitat has been lost, and large woody debris is minimal..
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Mining Activities Pollution: Heavy Metal All Mining practices have degraded water quality.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Filling; Riparian Degradation All Water temperatures have increased from destruction of cold water springs.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Summer low flows caused by irrigation diversions result in passage and spawning difficulties.

Snake Lower Subbasin

SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four to eight dams during migration.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Contaminant inputs from upstream land-use activities are often trapped in the reservoirs behind the dams.
Water Quality Temperature -- Water Management Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All High temperatures during upstream migration of salmonids limit productivity.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Frequent water level fluctuations have a deleterious and sometimes fatal effect on juvenile salmoinds. Fluctuations in flows can delay adult salmonid migrations. Modification of the historic hydrograph due to dam operations can result in peak flows that do not coincide with optimal spawning temperatures and can result in year-class failures.

Tucannon Subbasin 391, 392, 393

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Obstructions exist in Pataha Creek at river miles 1.3, 10.8, 25.7, 35.2, and 43.8. Additional obstructions exist at river mile 1.1. and 0.4 in Bihmaier Gulch and Dry Pataha creeks, respectively. Obstructions exist in the Tucannon River at river mile 5.5, 13.5, 16, 38.4, and 43. The Marengo-Tumalum geographic area contains several locations where diversion screens are absent or ineffective.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of large woody debris and pools limit productivity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Eggs, juveniles Sediment load impacts egg incubation and early life history stages. Marginal summer temperatures affect all life stages.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Marginal summer temperatures affect all life stages.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and reduced low flows, resulting from upland canopy removal, poor riparian conditions and loss of ground cover in the uplands, limit fry colonization and juvenile rearing life stages.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray fall Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Erosion Control; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Fry Lack of large woody debris and pools limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass six dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Predation, especially within reservoirs, is a primary limiting factor.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry Increased sediment load is problematic for fall Chinook. Sediment load impacts egg incubation and early life history stages.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and reduced low flows, resulting from upland canopy removal, poor riparian conditions and loss of ground cover in the uplands, limit fry colonization and juvenile rearing life stages.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray spring Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles Obstructions exist in the Tucannon River at river mile 5.5, 13.5, 16, 38.4, and 43. The Marengo-Tumalum geographic area contains several locations where diversion screens are absent or ineffective.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Erosion Control; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Fry Lack of large woody debris and pools limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass six dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Predation, especially within reservoirs, is a primary limiting factor.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Elevated summer water temperatures are a problem for spawning (pre-spawn holding) and egg incubation for spring Chinook. Marginal summer temperatures affect juvenile rearing for spring Chinook.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and reduced low flows, resulting from upland canopy removal, poor riparian conditions and loss of ground cover in the uplands, limit fry colonization and juvenile rearing life stages.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Large numbers of stray spring Chinook spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Obstructions exist in Pataha Creek at river miles 1.3, 10.8, 25.7, 35.2, and 43.8. Additional obstructions exist at river mile 1.1. and 0.4 in Bihmaier Gulch and Dry Pataha creeks, respectively. Obstructions exist in the Tucannon River at river mile 5.5, 13.5, 16, 38.4, and 43. The Marengo-Tumalum geographic area contains several locations where diversion screens are absent or ineffective.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Erosion Control; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Connections among the floodplain, riparian vegetation, and off-channel vegetation have been lost.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Fry Lack of large woody debris and pools limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass six dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Predation, especially within reservoirs, is a primary limiting factor.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry Increased sediment load is problematic for steelhead. Sediment load impacts egg incubation and early life history stages.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Marginal summer temperatures affect juvenile rearing.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration Juveniles, adults Increased peak flows and reduced low flows, resulting from upland canopy removal, poor riparian conditions and loss of ground cover in the uplands, limit fry colonization and juvenile rearing life stages.

Umatilla Subbasin 376, 394, 395

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of channel complexity and large woody debris limit bull trout in the North Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Pollutants impact bull trout in Meacham Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Temperature is a key limiting factor for bull trout in the North Fork watershed.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Low flows from June to September in Meacham Creek above Butcher Creek and in Thomas and Spring Creeks in the South Fork Umatilla watershed may have been influenced by land management activities. Low flows prevent migratory bull trout on their spawning migration from entering Meacham Creek.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Three Mile Falls Dam impedes access for coho when flows are low. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels limit productivity of coho.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles High temperatures limit productivity of coho.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.