Limiting Factors



Columbia Gorge Province

Wind Subbasin 376, 383

Chum
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All The Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juvenile, adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juvenile, adults Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All The Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Fry, summer parr Bank stability concerns exist for Compass, Upper Trout, and Layout creeks as well as for upper, middle, and lower Wind basins. The middle Wind River (RM 12-19) experiences rapid channel migration and avulsions during high flow events. The mainstem Wind River between RM 12 and 19 contains rural residential and agricultural development that has resulted in cleared riparian forests.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, summer parr Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude. The Wind headwaters and subwatersheds for Ninemile, Compass/Crater, Upper Trout, Upper Panther, and Layout creeks rank the highest for increased peak flows. Dry and Martha creeks as well as portions of the Trout Creek Basin go subsurface in late summer. Irrigation occurs in Trout Creek.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Artificial Propagation Migration Impediments Adults The fish ladder at Hemlock Dam (RM 2.1 on Trout Creek) is poorly designed and is not efficient for providing passage. Culverts prevent passage in Youngman and Oldman creeks. Subsurface flows can potentially isolate fish in Martha and Dry creeks and portions of the Trout Creek Flats area. Passage in Tyee Creek is blocked by the water intake for the Carson Hatchery.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density) Juveniles On the Middle Wind River, Forest Road 30, diking, Beaver Campground, and Carson Fish Hatchery limit floodplain connectivity. In the Mining Reach, Forest Road 30 intercepts the floodplain from RM 21-25.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Fry, summer parr Bank stability concerns exist for Compass, Upper Trout, and Layout creeks as well as for upper, middle, and lower Wind basins. The middle Wind River (RM 12-19) experiences rapid channel migration and avulsions during high flow events. The mainstem Wind River between RM 12 and 19 contains rural residential and agricultural development that has resulted in cleared riparian forests.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, summer parr Large woody debris conditions are poor throughout the basin
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass Bonneville Dam during migration
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Pete’s Gulch, Youngman, Dry, and Paradise creeks, and the Lower and Little Wind rivers have excessive in-stream sediment levels.
Water Quality Temperature -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas alteration All Bear and Eight-mile creeks are listed on the Washington State’s 1996 303(d) for exceeding the temperature standard. Trout Creek (above Hemlock Lake) has been under the temperature standard for only one year since 1977. Trout and Bear creeks are susceptible to temperature increases due to water withdrawals for irrigation and the city of Carson’s domestic water supply, respectively.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration All High road densities in the Lower Wind, Middle Wind, and Trout Creek combined with timber harvest and past fires have increased the the potential for altered peak flow timing and magnitude. The Wind headwaters and subwatersheds for Ninemile, Compass/Crater, Upper Trout, Upper Panther, and Layout creeks rank the highest for increased peak flows. Dry and Martha creeks as well as portions of the Trout Creek Basin go subsurface in late summer. Irrigation occurs in Trout Creek.