Limiting Factors



Columbia Plateau Province

Umatilla Subbasin 376, 394, 395

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization Juveniles, adults Lack of channel complexity and large woody debris limit bull trout in the North Fork watershed.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Forest management, agriculture, and livestock grazing practices have degraded riparian cover and function.
Toxic Contaminants Water; Biota -- Pollution and Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All Pollutants impact bull trout in Meacham Creek.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation All Temperature is a key limiting factor for bull trout in the North Fork watershed.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Low flows from June to September in Meacham Creek above Butcher Creek and in Thomas and Spring Creeks in the South Fork Umatilla watershed may have been influenced by land management activities. Low flows prevent migratory bull trout on their spawning migration from entering Meacham Creek.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Three Mile Falls Dam impedes access for coho when flows are low. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels limit productivity of coho.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles High temperatures limit productivity of coho.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Three Mile Falls Dam impedes access for coho when flows are low. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels limit productivity of fall Chinook salmon.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Juveniles High temperatures limit productivity of fall Chinook salmon. Releases from McKay reservoir may create a thermal barrier for fall Chinook salmon at river mile 50.5 (cool water below, warm water above).
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Adults Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Eggs, juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids. Lack of channel complexity and large woody debris limit spring Chinook in the South Fork watershed.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles High temperature below river mile 85 is the most important factor limiting spring Chinook salmon
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Artificial Propogation Straying Adult spawners Out-of-basin stray steelhead spawning with indigenous populations pose serious genetic risks.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults McKay Dam blocks access to over 30 miles of summer steelhead spawning and rearing habitat. Butter Creek is blocked by irrigation diversions, some of which lack screens.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal; Wetland Loss Juveniles Channelization has greatly reduced winter habitat for juvenile salmonids.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass three mainstem dams during migration.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Eggs, fry High sediment levels in the lower Umatilla River have decreased rearing habitat for summer steelhead.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices Riparian Degradation Eggs, juveniles High temperatures in the lower Umatilla River have decreased rearing habitat for summer steelhead.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs, juveniles Irrigation withdrawals may de-water the Umatilla River below Dillon Dam.