Limiting Factors



Columbia Plateau Province

Yakima Subbasin 393, 397, 376

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial or total flow/temperature blockages to fish migrations due to diversions exist throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Riparian Degradation; Bank Destabilization; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles, adults Riparian communities (particularly black cottonwood) in the mainstem Yakima and Naches rivers are degraded due to changes in the hydrograph. Channel incision has disconnected Toppenish Creek from the floodplain below Simcoe Creek. Riparian vegetation in Toppenish Creek between Unit II Pump Canal and Star Route 22 has been modified by grazing and irrigated agriculture.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Grazing impacts affect bull trout during spawning periods. Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Elevated sediment loads exist throughout the subbasin due to high road densities, increases in peak flows, bank erosion, and floodplain loss.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles, adults The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Riparian Degradation Fry Summer/early-fall habitat availability is low or eliminated by low flow and high temperature in the lower Yakima River and Wapato Reach. Lack of habitat diversity and large woody debris is problematic throughout the subbasin. Excessive growth of in-channel aquatic vegetation in the lower/middle Yakima is problematic.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes; altered Flow Timing Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Riparian Degradation; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Riparian communities (particularly black cottonwood) in the mainstem Yakima and Naches rivers are degraded due to changes in the hydrograph. Riparian vegetation in Toppenish Creek between Unit II Pump Canal and Star Route 22 has been modified by grazing and irrigated agriculture. Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Avian and fish predation problems exist throughout the subbasin
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Juveniles Elevated sediment loads exist throughout the subbasin due to high road densities, increases in peak flows, bank erosion, and floodplain loss.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Elevated summer temperatures exist in lower reaches of tributaries and headwaters due to development, forest management, and grazing practices. Temperatures in the lower Yakima and Wapato Reach have increased to a point that returning fall-run adults must delay river entry and juveniles must migrate from the river earlier. The mainstem Middle Fork, North Fork, West Fork Teanaway River, and Stafford Creek are 303(d) listed for water temperature.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap and sustained low flows to lower Naches and from Union Gap downstream limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.
PACIFIC LAMPREY
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial or total flow/temperature blockages to fish migrations due to diversions exist throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Elevated summer temperatures exist in lower reaches of tributaries and headwaters due to development, forest management, and grazing practices. Temperatures in the lower Yakima and Wapato Reach have increased to a point that returning fall-run adults must delay river entry and juveniles must migrate from the river earlier. The mainstem Middle Fork, North Fork, West Fork Teanaway River, and Stafford Creek are 303(d) listed for water temperature.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap and sustained low flows to lower Naches and from Union Gap downstream limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.
SOCKEYE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Obstructions have reduced the area available to sockeye. Kachess, Keechelus, and Cle Elum dams prevent access to high elevation areas for sockeye.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Sockeye are subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial or total flow/temperature blockages to fish migrations due to diversions exist throughout the subbasin. Wenas Dam prevents access to the upper Wenas Creek and dewaters lower Wenas Creek. Migratory fish cannot access Umtanum Creek upstream of river mile 4.8 due to a gabion structure. Kachess, Keechelus, and Cle Elum dams prevent access to high elevation areas for spring Chinook.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Channel incision has disconnected Toppenish Creek from the floodplain below Simcoe Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Lack of habitat diversity and large woody debris is problematic throughout the subbasin.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes; altered Flow Timing Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Riparian Degradation; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Riparian communities (particularly black cottonwood) in the mainstem Yakima and Naches rivers are degraded due to changes in the hydrograph. Riparian vegetation in Toppenish Creek between Unit II Pump Canal and Star Route 22 has been modified by grazing and irrigated agriculture. Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Spring Chinook are subject to freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Avian and fish predation problems exist throughout the subbasin
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Juveniles Elevated sediment loads exist throughout the subbasin due to high road densities, increases in peak flows, bank erosion, and floodplain loss.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Elevated summer temperatures exist in lower reaches of tributaries and headwaters due to development, forest management, and grazing practices. Temperatures in the lower Yakima and Wapato Reach have increased to a point that returning fall-run adults must delay river entry and juveniles must migrate from the river earlier. The mainstem Middle Fork, North Fork, West Fork Teanaway River, and Stafford Creek are 303(d) listed for water temperature.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap and sustained low flows to lower Naches and from Union Gap downstream limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Species Management Species Introduction Juveniles Altered fish communities have resulted in high levels of predation and competition.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Partial or total flow/temperature blockages to fish migrations due to diversions exist throughout the subbasin. Wenas Dam prevents access to the upper Wenas Creek and dewaters lower Wenas Creek. Migratory fish cannot access Umtanum Creek upstream of river mile 4.8 due to a gabion structure. Kachess, Keechelus, and Cle Elum dams prevent access to high elevation areas for steelhead.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Wetland Loss; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Juveniles Channel incision has disconnected Toppenish Creek from the floodplain below Simcoe Creek.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Riparian Degradation Juveniles Summer/early-fall habitat availability is low or eliminated by low flow and high temperature in the lower Yakima River and Wapato Reach. Lack of habitat diversity and large woody debris is problematic throughout the subbasin. Excessive growth of in-channel aquatic vegetation in the lower/middle Yakima is problematic.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes; altered Flow Timing Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Riparian Degradation; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration Juveniles Riparian communities (particularly black cottonwood) in the mainstem Yakima and Naches rivers are degraded due to changes in the hydrograph. Riparian vegetation in Toppenish Creek between Unit II Pump Canal and Star Route 22 has been modified by grazing and irrigated agriculture. Problems associated with channel incision, bank stability, and riparian vegetation removal exist throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Migration Impediments Juveniles Juveniles and adults must pass four dams during migration.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Species Management Predators: Fish; Predators: Avian Juveniles Avian and fish predation problems exist throughout the subbasin
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbance Juveniles Elevated sediment loads exist throughout the subbasin due to high road densities, increases in peak flows, bank erosion, and floodplain loss.
Toxic Contaminants Water -- Pollution or Contamination Pollution: Biological Wastes, Fertilizer, & Pharmaceuticals All High toxic pollutant levels exist in sediments throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Juveniles Elevated summer temperatures exist in lower reaches of tributaries and headwaters due to development, forest management, and grazing practices. Temperatures in the lower Yakima and Wapato Reach have increased to a point that returning fall-run adults must delay river entry and juveniles must migrate from the river earlier. The mainstem Middle Fork, North Fork, West Fork Teanaway River, and Stafford Creek are 303(d) listed for water temperature.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal; Water: Hydrologic Cycle Alteration; Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration. Juveniles The annual hydrograph has been modified. Upstream of Union Gap, the hygrograph has been “flattened” affecting riparian and ecosystem function, productivity, and stability. Annual flow is reduced from Parker to Toppenish Creek/Marion Dam. Sustained high flows in the upper Yakima downstream to Union Gap and sustained low flows to lower Naches and from Union Gap downstream limit habitat diversity. Low flows are problematic throughout the subbasin.