Limiting Factors



Intermountain Province

Pend Orielle Subbasin 408, 410, 411

BULL TROUT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Hydro dams lack passage facilities. Loss of connectivity due to artificial barriers (e.g., impassable culverts, splashdams, etc) without passage facilities on the mainstem Pend Oreille River and its tributaries limits abundance.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Diking in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production. Lack of habitat diversity limits production in the Lower Pend Oreille. The availability of tributary spawning and rearing habitat limits salmonid production in Upper Priest Lake and Priest Lake. Tributary habitat throughout the subbasin is characterized by excess bedload filling in pools, widening of stream channels, loss of large woody debris recruitment, and fine sediment covering spawning gravels.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Livestock grazing, timber harvest, and conversion of forest lands to agriculture and residential areas have degraded riparian habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts, predation issues, and problems with hybridization with native species.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Mass Wasting; Forest Management; Urbanization Landslides; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Sediment input (mass wasting and point and non-point input) due to timber harvest practices and road construction/maintenance are problems in tributaries throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Elevated temperature, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved gases are problematic for fish in the Lower Pend Oreille.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Hydropower development and operations on the Pend Oreile River altered the hydrology of the river from a cold fast-moving river to warm and shallow reservoirs. Operation of Cabinet Gorge Dam compromises riverine habitat in the Lower Clark Fork River. Water diversion in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production.
KOKANEE
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts, predation issues, and problems with hybridization with native species.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal Eggs Hydropower development and operations on the Pend Oreile River altered the hydrology of the river from a cold fast-moving river to warm and shallow reservoirs. Operation of Cabinet Gorge Dam compromises riverine habitat in the Lower Clark Fork River. Water diversion in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production.
LARGEMOUTH BASS
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Storage or Withdrawal Juveniles Lack of over-wintering habitat is the primary limiting factor.
MOUNTAIN WHITEFISH
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Loss of connectivity due to artificial barriers (e.g., impassable culverts, splashdams, etc) without passage facilities on the mainstem Pend Oreille River and its tributaries limits abundance.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Diking in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production. Lack of habitat diversity limits production in the Lower Pend Oreille. The availability of tributary spawning and rearing habitat limits salmonid production in Upper Priest Lake and Priest Lake. Tributary habitat throughout the subbasin is characterized by excess bedload filling in pools, widening of stream channels, loss of large woody debris recruitment, and fine sediment covering spawning gravels.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Livestock grazing, timber harvest, and conversion of forest lands to agriculture and residential areas have degraded riparian habitat.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Mass Wasting; Forest Management; Urbanization Landslides; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Sediment input (mass wasting and point and non-point input) due to timber harvest practices and road construction/maintenance are problems in tributaries throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Elevated temperature, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved gases are problematic for fish in the Lower Pend Oreille.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Water diversion in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production.
WESTSLOPE CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Biological Viability Criteria Diversity -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Adults Non-native rainbow trout releases lead to hybridization with native cutthroat trout.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability Freshwater-Instream Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Migration Impediments Juveniles, adults Hydro dams lack passage facilities. Loss of connectivity due to artificial barriers (e.g., impassable culverts, splashdams, etc) without passage facilities on the mainstem Pend Oreille River and its tributaries limits abundance.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Diking in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production. Lack of habitat diversity limits production in the Lower Pend Oreille. The availability of tributary spawning and rearing habitat limits salmonid production in Upper Priest Lake and Priest Lake. Tributary habitat throughout the subbasin is characterized by excess bedload filling in pools, widening of stream channels, loss of large woody debris recruitment, and fine sediment covering spawning gravels.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Diking; Filling; Wetland Loss; Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Livestock grazing, timber harvest, and conversion of forest lands to agriculture and residential areas have degraded riparian habitat.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles, adults Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts, predation issues, and problems with hybridization with native species.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Mass Wasting; Forest Management; Urbanization Landslides; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Sediment: Bank Destabilization All Sediment input (mass wasting and point and non-point input) due to timber harvest practices and road construction/maintenance are problems in tributaries throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature; Oxygen -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All Elevated temperature, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved gases are problematic for fish in the Lower Pend Oreille.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing; Decreased Water Quantity -- Dam or Hydropower Facility Management; Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Water: Storage or Withdrawal All Hydropower development and operations on the Pend Oreile River altered the hydrology of the river from a cold fast-moving river to warm and shallow reservoirs. Operation of Cabinet Gorge Dam compromises riverine habitat in the Lower Clark Fork River. Water diversion in Pend Oreille River tributaries limits production.