Limiting Factors



Lower Columbia Province

Kalama Subbasin 362

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Fry Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Fry, adults Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Fry, adults Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Adults Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation All Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles, adults Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation All Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Eggs, summer parr The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Eggs, winter parr Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles, adults Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration Eggs, summer parr The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Eggs, winter parr Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
SPRING CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Morphological Changes Freshwater-Floodplain Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Juveniles Forest practices and high road densities have resulted in diminished floodplain connectivity and function.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Forest Management Riparian Degradation Juveniles Riparian vegetation is lacking throughout the subbasin due to forest practices of the 1960’s through 1980’s.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Low levels of large woody debris contribute to the lack of habitat diversity throughout the subbasin.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Eggs, summer parr Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation; Sediment: Upland Disturbance All Excessive sedimentation related to past forest practices and high road density is a problem throughout the subbasin.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration All The lower 10 miles of the Kalama River and Fallert Creek are on the Washington state 303(d) list for exceeding temperature standards. Temperature is especially a problem at the mouth, where sediments have created a wide, shallow channel.
Water Quantity Altered Flow Timing -- Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Variation Juveniles Past forest practices and high road densities have altered flow patterns throughout the subbasin.