Limiting Factors



Lower Columbia Province

Washougal Subbasin 362

CHUM
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Adults Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian degradation; Impervious Surfaces Adults Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Eggs Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.
COASTAL CUTTHROAT
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles, adults Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles, adults Riparian function is degraded in upper reaches. Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation All Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation All Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles, adults Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.
COHO
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Riparian function is degraded in upper reaches. Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Coho are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Summer parr Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Juveniles Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Summer parr Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Summer parr Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.
FALL CHINOOK
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian degradation; Impervious Surfaces Fry Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Anthropogenic Mortality -- Fishery Management Harvest Adults Fall Chinook are subject to both ocean and freshwater harvest.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Fry Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Summer parr Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
SUMMER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Fry, summer parr Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Juveniles Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces Juveniles Riparian function is degraded in upper reaches. Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Fry, summer parr Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Fry, summer parr Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Fry, summer parr Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Juveniles Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.
WINTER STEELHEAD
Key Limiting Factor Impairment Habitat Affected Threat Type Threat Name Life Stage (s) Description
Food Competition -- Artificial Propogation Intraspecific Interaction Fry Hatchery releases lead to competition with naturally produced juveniles.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Access and Availability; Morphological Changes Estuary Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Diking; Filling; Riparian Degradation; Wetland Loss Smolts Historical complex habitats have been modified through channelization, diking, development and other practices.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Diking; Filling; Wood/Structure Removal Fry Channel stability is limiting in the lower reaches of the subbasin. Habitat diversity is diminished primarily by lack of large woody debris in the lower mainstem and in the West Fork.
Habitat Quantity and Quality Small-Scale Structural Complexity; Morphological Changes Freshwater-Riparian Agricultural Practices; Urbanization Riparian Degradation; Impervious Surfaces Fry Riparian function is degraded in upper reaches. Many riparian areas are denuded in the Lower Mainstem and Lower Little Washougal watersheds.
Instantaneous Mortality Pathogens -- Artificial Propogation Disease Amplification and Transfer Eggs, fry Pathogens from hatcheries may limit productivity.
Instantaneous Mortality Predation -- Fishery Management Species Introduction Fry Non-native species introductions have lead to community shifts and predation issues.
Sediment Conditions Increased Sediment Quantity Freshwater-Instream Agricultural Practices; Forest Management Sediment: Bank Destabilization; Sediment: Upland Disturbances; Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Riparian Degradation Eggs Sedimentation from upper subbasin sources impacts most of the mainstem.
Water Quality Temperature -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Water: Temperature and Gas Alteration; Riparian Degradation Fry Lacamas Creek and several tributaries were listed on the 1998 state 303(d) list for exceeding dissolved oxygen and temperature standards. Denuded riparian areas in lower reaches and lack of mature forest cover in upper reaches contribute to high temperatures.
Water Quantity Decreased Water Quantity; Increased Water Quantity -- Agricultural Practices; Forest Management; Urbanization Impervious Surfaces (Road Density); Water: Runoff Coefficient Alteration; Water Storage or Withdrawal, Channelization, Management Eggs, fry Altered flow regimes are caused by high road density in the upper mainstem and West Fork watersheds. Water withdrawals from Jones and Boulder creeks increase the risk of critically low summer flows in the Little Washougal watershed.